alexa In Situ Measurement of Time-Weighted Average Concentrations of Cylindrospermopsin and Microcystin LR-YR-RR-LY in Natural Waters Using Silicone-Membrane/Γ-Fe2O3-Nanoparticle-Sorbent Passive Sampling Device
ISSN: 2161-0525

Journal of Environmental & Analytical Toxicology
Open Access

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Research Article

In Situ Measurement of Time-Weighted Average Concentrations of Cylindrospermopsin and Microcystin LR-YR-RR-LY in Natural Waters Using Silicone-Membrane/Γ-Fe2O3-Nanoparticle-Sorbent Passive Sampling Device

Hlengilizwe Nyoni1, Bhekie B Mamba2 and Titus AM Msagati2*
1Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 17011, Doornfontein 2028, Johannesburg, Republic of South Africa
2University of South Africa, College of Science Engineering and Technology, Nanotechnology and Water Sustainability Research Unit, UNISA Science Campus, P.O. Box 392 UNISA 0003, Florida, 1709 Roodepoort, Johannesburg, South Africa
Corresponding Author : Titus AM Msagati
University of South Africa
College of Science Engineering and Technology
Nanotechnology and Water Sustainability, Research Unit
UNISA Science Campus, P.O. Box 392 UNISA 0003, Florida
1709 Roodepoort, Johannesburg, South Africa
Tel: 27 72 311 0693
E-mail: [email protected]
Received January 02, 2014; Accepted January 23, 2015; Published January 29, 2015
Citation:Nyoni H, Mamba BB, Msagati TAM (2015) In Situ Measurement of Time-Weighted Average Concentrations of Cylindrospermopsin and Microcystin LR-YR-RR-LY in Natural Waters Using Silicone-Membrane/Γ-Fe2O3- Nanoparticle-Sorbent Passive Sampling Device. J Environ Anal Toxicol 5:270.doi: 10.4172/2161-0525.1000270
Copyright: © 2015 Nyoni H, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract

Preliminary use of performance reference compounds (PRC) spiked into the silicone-membrane/γ-Fe2O3 sampler for in situ calibration has been demonstrated to improve the quantitative nature of water concentration estimates. Hydrophobic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), though they occur at significant levels in the environment, were used as PRC because of their relatively high fugacity from the silicone membrane and evidence of their isotropic exchange kinetics. In situ calibrations of silicone-membrane/γ-Fe2O3 sampler spiked with 16 PAHs and the resulting time weighted average (TWA) concentration estimates were compared with similar values of SPE extracts from grab samples. Calibration studies were successfully done and variable environmental conditions (e.g. effects of hydrodynamics and temperature) were found to affect their elimination rates from silicone-membrane/γ-Fe2O3 sampler. A significant increase of elimination rates with change of hydrodynamic conditions from static to turbulent was observed for all compounds under investigation. The technique has also been successfully applied to the detection of freshwater cyanobacterial toxins such as microcystins and cylindrospermopsin.

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