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In vitro and In vivo Resistance to Human Immuno Deficiency Virus Type 1 Entry Inhibitors | OMICS International | Abstract
ISSN 2155-6113

Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research
Open Access

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Review Article

In vitro and In vivo Resistance to Human Immuno Deficiency Virus Type 1 Entry Inhibitors

Yosuke Maeda1, Kazuhisa Yoshimura2, Fusako Miyamoto3, Eiichi Kodama3, Shigeyoshi Harada2, Yuzhe Yuan5, Shinji Harada1 and Keisuke Yusa5*

1Department of Medical Virology, Graduate School of Medical Virology, Kumamoto University, Honjo 2-1-1, Kumamoto 860-5886, Japan

2Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-0811, Japan

3Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan

4Transfusion transmitted Diseases Center, Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Science, #26 Hua-Cai Road, Long-Tan-Si Industrial Park, Chenghua District, Chengdu, 610052 Sichuan Province, P. R. China

5Division of Biological Chemistry and Biologicals, National Institute of Health Sciences, Kami-youga 1-18-1, Setagaya, Tokyo 158-8501, Japan

*Corresponding Author:
Keisuke Yusa
Division of Biological Chemistry and Biologicals
National Institute of Health Sciences, Kami-youga 1-18-1
Setagaya, Tokyo 158-8501, Japan
Tel: +81-3-3700-1141 ext. 335
Fax: +81-3-3700-9084
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: October 18, 2011; Accepted Date: December 02, 2011; Published Date: December 05, 2011

Citation: Maeda R, Yoshimura K, Miyamoto F, Kodama E, Harada S, et al. (2011) In vitro and In vivo Resistance to Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Entry Inhibitors. J AIDS Clinic Res S2:004. doi:10.4172/2155-6113.S2-004

Copyright: © 2011 Maeda R, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Viral entry is one of the most important targets for the efficient treatment of Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients. The entry process consists of multiple molecular steps: attachment of viral gp120 to CD4, interaction of gp120 with CCR5 or CXCR4 co-receptors, and gp41-mediated fusion of the viral and cellular membranes. Understanding the sequential steps of the entry process has enabled the production of various antiviral drugs to block each of these steps. Currently, the CCR5 inhibitor, maraviroc, and the fusion inhibitor, enfuvirtide, are clinically available. However, the emergence of HIV-1 strains resistant to entry inhibitors, as commonly observed for other classes of antiviral agents, is a serious problem. In this review, we describe a variety of entry inhibitors targeting different steps of viral entry and escape variants that are generated in vitro and in vivo.