alexa In Vivo Anti-Plasmodial Effect of Ethanol and Aqueous Extracts of Alchornea cordifolia
ISSN: 2161-1009

Biochemistry & Analytical Biochemistry
Open Access

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Research Article

In Vivo Anti-Plasmodial Effect of Ethanol and Aqueous Extracts of Alchornea cordifolia

Ezeokeke EE, Ene AC* and Igwe CU

Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author:
Ene A.C
Department of Biochemistry
Federal University of Technology
Owerri, Nigeria
Tel: +234 (0) 803 854 4994
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: September 07, 2015; Accepted Date: October 30, 2015; Published Date: November 03, 2015

Citation: Ezeokeke EE, Ene AC, Igwe CU (2015) In Vivo Anti-Plasmodial Effect of Ethanol and Aqueous Extracts of Alchornea cordifolia. Biochem Anal Biochem 4:221. doi:10.4172/2161-1009.1000221

Copyright: © 2015 Ezeokeke EE, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited

 

Abstract

Ethanol and aqueous extracts of the leaves, stem bark and roots of Alchornea cordifolia were tested for in vivo anti-malarial activity in 27 Swiss albino mice infected with chloroquine resistant Plasmodium bergei NK 65. The plant extracts were administered to the animals intraperitoneally, at a dose of 100 mg/kg b.w.t., and compared with Artesunate (1.6 mg/kg) and Chloroquine (10 mg/kg) administered and an untreated control group. Ethanol yielded more extracts from the leaves and stem bark than water. Tannins, flavonoids, anthraquinones, alkaloids and glycosides were widely distributed in both ethanol and aqueous extracts of the plant. All animals administered the plant extracts and Artesunate gained weights in comparison with the chloroquine and untreated groups. The animals in the untreated and chloroquine treated groups died due to the infection at the end of days 5 and 10 respectively. The Artesunate group was eradicated of parasitemia by the 7th day. Comparison of the parasitemia levels of the plant’s extracts treated groups between days 0 and 14, showed that while ethanol leaves, stem bark and root extracts reduced parasitemia by 72.22%, 50.00% and 20.00% respectively, those of aqueous extracts reduced parasitemia marginally by 0%, 9.50% and 19.17% respectively. The results indicate that ethanol extracted active phytochemicals more from the leaves and stem bark of the plant than water, and that the presence of these secondary metabolites might be responsible for the higher anti-malarial activity observed with the leaves and stem bark extracts. This confirms the folkloric preferential use of A. cordifolia leaves as an anti-malarial agent.

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