In vivo Safety of Dichloromethane-Methanolic Extract of Allium sativum in Normal MiceKariuki DM*, Gaichu DM, Mburu DN and Ngugi MP
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, School of Pure and Applied Sciences, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya
- *Corresponding Author:
- Kariuki Duncan Maina
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya
Tel: +254 722 109 448
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: January 5, 2017; Accepted Date: January 16, 2017; Published Date: January 23, 2017
Citation: Kariuki DM, Gaichu DM, Mburu DN, Ngugi MP (2017) In vivo Safety of Dichloromethane-Methanolic Extract of Allium sativum in Normal Mice. J Drug Metab Toxicol 8:223. doi: 10.4172/2157-7609.1000223
Copyright: © 2017 Kariuki DM, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
The indiscriminate use of Allium sativum in treatment of various diseases can pose a great danger to various body functions. Assessment of the effect of the extract on haematological and biochemical parameters can be used to explain the blood, liver and kidney related functions. Sub-chronic toxicity evaluation was done by orally administering extracts dissolved in 1% DMSO, using a drenching syringe in doses of 100, 500, 1000 and 200 mg/kg body weights of extract for 28 days. The control group was given DMSO at the same frequency and period. The body weights of both treated and control rats was recorded before, during and at the end of the experiment. The results of this study showed that dichloromethane-Methanolic extract of A. sativum induced significant increase in the levels of red blood cell, haemoglobin and haematocrit across the 100, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg.bw dose levels (p<0.05). However, the red blood cell indices did not show a significant change at all the dose levels (p>0.05). The total and differential white blood cell counts also increased significantly at all dose levels (p<0.05). However, the platelets and the related parameters did not have any significant change at all the dose levels during this study period (p>0.05). The dichloromethane-Methanolic extract of A. sativum caused a significant increase in the levels of liver functions profiles across the 100, 500 and 2000 mg/kg.bw dose levels (p<0.05). Qualitative phytochemical screening confirmed the presence of various phytochemicals which included alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, saponins, cardiac glycosides and phenolics. These phytochemicals are understood to play a major role in gene expression, erythropoietin stimulatory, thrombopoietic stimulatory, immune-stimulatory and enzyme activities. Flavonoids, cardiac glycosides and alkaloids are also responsible for the increase in the red blood cell count through their antioxidant properties. Conversely, an increase in saponins may result to a decrease in red blood cell indices. It was therefore concluded that the plant extract, subject to various stipulated assays, is safe at particular doses as indicated by changes in haematological parameters. On the other hand, the study also shows that the plant extract is not safe at high doses as indicated by change in the liver and kidney parameters which showed hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity respectively.