alexa Increased Risk for Obesity and Diabetes with Neurodegeneration in Developing Countries
ISSN: 1747-0862

Journal of Molecular and Genetic Medicine
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Review Article

Increased Risk for Obesity and Diabetes with Neurodegeneration in Developing Countries

Martins IJ1,2,3*

1Centre of Excellence for Alzheimer’s Disease Research and Care, School of Medical Sciences, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, 6027, Australia

2School of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, 6009, Australia

3McCusker Alzheimer's Research Foundation, Hollywood Medical Centre, 85 Monash Avenue, Suite 22, Nedlands, 6009, Australia

Corresponding Author:
Dr. Ian Martins
School of Medical Sciences
Edith Cowan University
270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup
Western Australia 6027, Australia
Tel: +61863042574
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: September 04, 2013; Accepted Date: October 04, 2013; Published Date: October 07, 2013

Citation: Martins IJ (2013) Increased Risk for Obesity and Diabetes with Neurodegeneration in Developing Countries. J Mol Genet Med S1:001. doi:10.4172/1747-0862.S1-001

Copyright: © 2013 Martins IJ. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited

Abstract

The incidence of global obesity and Type 2 diabetes has increased and is predicted to rise to 30% of the global population. Diet and lifestyle factors are incapable to resolve the increased incidence for obesity and diabetes in various populations of the world. Developing countries have come to the forefront because of the higher diabetic epidemic. The urbanization may possibly provide an explanation for the global diabetic epidemic. In Western countries the metabolic syndrome and non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have reached 30 % of the population and now at present NAFLD afflicts 20% of developing populations. Western diets and sedentary lifestyles cause metabolic disorders in developing countries which may increase neurodegenerative diseases by the disrupted metabolism of xenobiotics in urban populations. In developing countries access to high calorie diets in urban areas down regulate
liver nuclear receptors that are responsible for glucose, lipid and toxicological sensing and interrupt the metabolism of xenobiotics that become toxic to various tissues such as the pancreas, heart, kidney, brain and liver. Xenobiotics in urban areas induce epigenetic changes that involve chromatin remodelling by alterations in transcriptional regulators with modification of histones. Dysfunction of nuclear receptors such as the calorie sensitive sirtuin 1 (Sirt 1) gene involves abnormal nutrient metabolism with insulin resistance, NAFLD, energy balance and circadian rhythm disorders. In obesity and diabetes insulin resistance has been connected to poor xenobiotic metabolism
with the toxic affects of increased xenobiotic transport to the brain associated with neurodegeneration. Dietary interventions to increase xenobiotic metabolism are likely to reduce oxidative stress and neuroendocrine disease in developing countries. Prevention programs are an important goal of international health organizations and in developing countries the plans to adapt a healthy diet, active lifestyle and reduced exposure to xenobiotics are important to manage the global epidemic for obesity and diabetes.

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