Individual and Combined Effects of Subchronic Exposure of Three Fusarium Toxins (Fumonisin B, Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone) in Rabbit Bucks
Judit Szabó-Fodor1*, Mariam Kachlek1, Sándor Cseh3, Bence SomoskÅi3, András Szabó1,2, Zsófia Blochné Bodnár2, Gábor Tornyos2, Miklós Mézes4, Krisztián Balogh4, Róbert Glávits5, Dóra Hafner2 and Melinda Kovács1,2
- *Corresponding Author:
- Judit Szabó-Fodor
Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences
MTA-KE Mycotoxins in the Food Chain Research Group
Kaposvár University, Hungary
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: July 27, 2015 Accepted date: August 02, 2015 Published date: August 03, 2015
Citation: Szabó-Fodor J, Kachlek K, Cseh S, Somoskoi B, Szabó A, et al. (2015) Individual and Combined Effects of Subchronic Exposure of Three Fusarium Toxins (Fumonisin B, Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone) in Rabbit Bucks. J Clin Toxicol 5:264. doi:10.4172/2161-0495.1000264
Copyright: © 2015 Szabó-Fodor J, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Objective of the study was to determine reproductive toxicity of Fusarium toxins orally at three subchronic doses on adult Pannon White male rabbits. The four treatments were: control (C, toxin-free diet), F (5 mg/kg FB1), DZ (1 mg/kg DON+0.25 mg/kg ZEA), FDZ (5 mg/kg FB1+1 mg/kg DON+0.25 mg/kg ZEA) for 65 days (n=15/treatment). The doses were pre-determined according the EU limits in finished feed for young pig (in the absence of limits for rabbits’ feed; based on the European Commission Recommendation 2006/576/EC and the European Commission Directive 2003/100/EC). The most pronounced effects of the toxins were exerted on the reproductive processes. The ratio of spermatozoa showing progressive forward motility decreased (P<0.05) from 80% to 67% in the FDZ group by day 60. Differences were found between the groups DZ (66.3% ± 23.7) and C (80.2% ± 11.2) in spermatozoa morphology. GnRH treated animals produced less testosterone in FDZ animals, compared to the other three groups (P<0.05). In the comet assay the individual fumonisin treatment resulted in significantly less 0 comets (intact cells), compared to all others. Based on the prevalence of score, lower (P<0.0001) damage was observed in FDZ group, as compared to F and DZ. Among the mycotoxins studied, additive or less than additive effect was found in case of spermatogenesis and sperm cell morphology, synergism in testosterone production, while FB1 acted antagonistically against DON+ZEA in comet assay. All mycotoxins provoked moderate lipid-peroxidation, based on the changes of glutathione concentration, glutathione peroxidase activity and formation of malondialdehyde and conjugated dienes and trienes, and exerted slight genotoxicity based on comet assay, FB1 being antagonistic towards DON+ZEA. In F, DZ and FDZ animals the intensity of spermatogenesis decreased by 43, 31 and 64%, respectively, which was reflected by lack of differentiated spermatozoa, thinning of the germinal epithelium, the appearance of multinuclear giant cells, indicative of the disturbance of meiosis and mitosis of the germinal epithelial cells and in some cases the lack of spermatogonia.