alexa Insights into the Antimicrobial Activities of Unusual A
ISSN: 2161-0495

Journal of Clinical Toxicology
Open Access

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Review Article

Insights into the Antimicrobial Activities of Unusual Antimicrobial Peptide Families from Amphibian Skin

Marlon Henrique Cardoso1, Nicole Berwanger Cobacho1, Mariana Dornelles Cherobim1, Michelle Flaviane Soares Pinto1,2, Cristiane dos Santos1,2, Mariana Rocha Maximiano1,2, Everaldo Gonçalves de Barros1, Simoni Campos Dias1,2 and Octávio Luiz Franco1,2*

1Centro de Análises Proteômicas e Bioquímicas, Pós-Graduação em Ciências Genômicas e Biotecnologia, Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brasília-DF, Brazil

2Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Genômicas e Biotecnologia, Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brasília-DF, Brazil

*Corresponding Author:
Octávio Luiz Franco
Universidade Católica de Brasília
Pós-Graduação em Ciências Genômicas e Biotecnologia/Centro de
Análises Proteômicas e Bioquímicas-SGAN 916
Av. W5, Módulo C, sala 219, Brasília-DF, Brazil, CEP 70790-160
Tel: +55 61 34487167/+55 61 34487220
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: May 14, 2014; Accepted Date: June 30, 2014; Published Date: July 03, 2014

Citation: Cardoso MH, Cobacho NB, Cherobim MD, Pinto MFC, Santos C, et al. (2014) Insights into the Antimicrobial Activities of Unusual Antimicrobial Peptide Families from Amphibian Skin. J Clin Toxicol 4:205. doi: 10.4172/2161-0495.1000205

Copyright: © 2014, Cardoso MH, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

 

Abstract

Frog’s skin secretions are known to present peculiar characteristics involving an arsenal of bioactive molecules. These organisms, in response to stress, injury or predator attack, release a viscous toxic secretion through granular glands containing biogenic amines, alkaloids, steroids, proteins and also peptides. Among such compounds, the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are responsible to play an important role in amphibian first-line defense against pathogenic microorganisms such as Gram-negative and positive bacteria, fungi and virus. In amphibians, AMPs have been isolated from different species and functionally studied, presenting not only antimicrobial but also antitumor, antifungal, anti-protozoa and spermicidal activities. However, a large number of AMPs have also shown cytotoxic activities against mammalian cells. In order to develop novel anti-infective drugs with low side effects, recent research has also been done to describe novel frog AMPs with different structural patterns. In this context, this review will focus on the antimicrobial activities of nine recently discovered amphibian AMPs including phylloseptins, nigrocins, japonicins, palustrins, parkerins, jingdongins, medusins, limnonectins and hylaranins. The biochemical properties will be discussed, as well as their possible applications in human health as new alternatives to conventional medicines.

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