Interleukin-1ÃÂ²/Interleukin10 Ratio Produced by Monocytes as a Biomarker of Neuroinflammation in AutismHarumi Jyonouchi1*, Lee Geng1 and Steve Buyske2
- *Corresponding Author:
- Harumi Jyonouchi
Faculty, Department of Pediatrics, SPUH, Clinical Professor of Pediatrics
Rutgers-RWJ, 254 Easton Ave. New Brunswick, NJ-08901, USA
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: April 04, 2017; Accepted date: May 10, 2017; Published date: May 20, 2017
Citation: Jyonouchi H, Geng L, Buyske S (2017) Interleukin-1β/Interleukin10 Ratio Produced by Monocytes as a Biomarker of Neuroinflammation in Autism. J Clin Cell Immunol 8:503. doi: 10.4172/2155-9899.1000503
Copyright: © 2017 Jyonouchi H, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Objective: Innate immune abnormalities have been frequently reported in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but a role of innate immunity in ASD is not well understood. This study explored a possible role of innate immunity in ASD clinical features and co-morbidities.
Methods: Purified peripheral blood monocytes (PBMo) from ASD (N=125) and non-ASD (N=36) subjects were cultured overnight with or without stimulants of innate immunity, and production of pro-inflammatory and counter-regulator cytokines were assessed. Behavioral symptoms were assessed by aberrant behavioral checklist (ABC) at the time of PBMo sampling.
Results: ASD PBMo revealed highly variable IL-1β/IL-10 ratios, in contrast to a tight range of IL-1β/IL-10 ratios in non-ASD control cells. There was no association between cytokine levels or IL-1β/IL-10 ratios and ABC subscale scores when ASD data was analyzed, as a whole. However, when ASD data was separated into high, low, or normal (equivalent to controls) IL-1β/IL-1 ratio groups, IL-1β levels were positively associated with stereotypy in the high ratio group. In contrast, IL-1β and IL-10 levels were negatively associated with irritability, lethargy, and hyperactivity in the normal ratio group. The low ratio group revealed a negative association between IL-1β levels and lethargy. When longitudinal changes in cytokine production from PBMo were studied in selected ASD subjects, fluctuating ratios were found in ASD subjects with deviated (high or low) IL-1β/IL-10 ratios, but ratios remained stable in ASD subjects with normal ratios. ASD subjects with deviated ratios were found to have higher frequencies of non-IgE mediated food allergy (NFA) (p<0.05) and seizure disorder (p<0.01) than those with normal ratios.
Conclusion: IL-1β and IL-10 produced by innate immune responses play crucial roles in the neuroimmune network. Thus the deviated (high or low) IL-1β/IL-10 ratio from ASD monocytes may be a promising candidate biomarker for assessing changes of neuroimmune regulations and risk of comorbidities (NFA and seizure disorders) in ASD.