Interleukin-21: A New Class of Thymopoietin for Immune RejuvenationEdouard Al-Chami1, Fatemeh Khoyadarian2,3 and Moutih Rafei2-4*
- *Corresponding Author:
- Moutih Rafei
Ph.D., Department of Microbiology
Infectiology and Immunology Roger-Gaudry Pavilion (V-437-1) 2900 Edouard- Montpetit BLVD, Montreal, Qc, H3T 1J4, Canada
Tel: (514) 691-1913
Fax: (514) 343-2291
E-mail: m[email protected]
Received date: August 25, 2016; Accepted date: September 10, 2016; Published date: September 12, 2016
Citation: Al-Chami E, Khoyadarian F, Rafei M (2016) Interleukin-21: A New Class of Thymopoietin for Immune Rejuvenation. Single Cell Biol 5:149. doi: 10.4172/2168-9431.1000149
Copyright: © 2016 Al-Chami E, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
More than two billion people will reach the age of 65 by 2050. Therefore, infectious disease/cancer-related morbidity and mortality of aged subjects is expected to rise. Several factors including impaired functions of body barriers and changes in microbial colonization contribute in increasing elderly susceptibility to infections and cancer. However, thymic involution, a hallmark of immunosenescence, is undoubtedly the principal component of this prominent problem. Although the thymus remains functional at older age, its pronounced diminished T-cell export rate is insufficient to sustain a competent naïve peripheral T-cell pool. Consequently, gradual dwindling in T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire diversity takes place. As a result, the capacity of the elderly immune system to confer protection against cancer, acute/chronic infections or to respond to vaccination erodes. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of novel strategies aimed at: i) providing superior control of infectious diseases and cancer, and ii) improving responsiveness to all forms of immunotherapies.