Interleukin-6 as an Independent Predictor of Future Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Type-2 Diabetes without Structural Heart Disease
|Tetsuji Shinohara1*, Naohiko Takahashi2, Norihiro Okada1, Reika Ayabe1, Hidekazu Kondo1, Kunio Yufu2, Mikiko Nakagawa2,
Masahide Hara1 and Tetsunori Saikawa2
|1Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Oita University, Oita, Japan|
|2Department of Laboratory Examination and Diagnostics, Faculty of Medicine, Oita University, Oita, Japan|
|Corresponding Author :||Tetsuji Shinohara, MD, Ph.D
1-1 Idaigaoka, Hasamamachi, Yuhu, Oita, Japan
E-mail: [email protected]
|Received July 02, 2012; Accepted August 07, 2012; Published August 10, 2012|
|Citation: Shinohara T, Takahashi N, Okada N, Ayabe R, Kondo H, et al. (2012) Interleukin-6 as an Independent Predictor of Future Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Type-2 Diabetes without Structural Heart Disease. J Clin Exp Cardiolog 3:209. doi:10.4172/2155-9880.1000209|
|Copyright: © 2012 Shinohara T, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.|
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Background: An increased serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) level is associated with a risk of cardiovascular disease. Elevated IL-6 levels are also involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and can predict the development of type-2 diabetes. We tested the hypothesis that elevated IL-6 levels can predict the incidence of cardiovascular events in type-2 diabetes.
Methods: Eighty-two patients with type-2 diabetes without structural heart disease (48 males; 60 ± 12 years). The initial onset of a major adverse cardiovascular event was investigated.
Results: During a mean of 3.4 ± 2.0 years of follow-up, 11 patients developed cardiovascular events (3 cardiovascular deaths, 2 non-fatal myocardial infarctions, 2 coronary revascularizations, and 4 strokes). Univariate analyses revealed that elevated IL-6 level, fasting immunoreactive insulin level, and the HOMA-R were associated with cardiovascular events. Based on multivariate analyses, elevated IL-6 levels independently predicted the incidence of cardiovascular events (HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.04–1.31, P=0.015). Kaplan–Meier curves revealed that patients with a high IL-6 concentration (>2.6 pg/mL) had a higher incidence of cardiovascular events than those with non-high IL-6 concentration (≤2.6 pg/mL, P=0.031).
Conclusions: These results suggest that measurement of serum IL-6 concentration is a useful tool to identify high-risk patients for cardiovascular events in type-2 diabetes.