Investigations into the Immunostimulatory Activities of the Compounds Isolated from Zizyphus mauritiana
|Suhas Talmale, Arti Bhujade and Mandakini B Patil*|
|University Department of Biochemistry, RTM Nagpur University, Nagpur-440033, India|
|Corresponding Author :||Mandakini B Patil
University Department of Biochemistry
RTM Nagpur University, Nagpur-440033, India
E-mail: [email protected]
|Received: July 14, 2015; Accepted: October 02, 2015; Published: October 09, 2015|
|Citation: Talmale S, Bhujade A, Patil MB (2015) Investigations into the Immunostimulatory Activities of the Compounds Isolated from Zizyphus mauritiana. J Clin Cell Immunol 6:357. doi:10.4172/2155-9899.1000357|
|Copyright: © 2015 Talmale S, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.|
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Objective: Any lacuna in the immune system can cause serious problems. Many synthetic immunostimulators are available, but they show many side effects. Phytochemicals present in Zizyphus mauritiana, Lam (Rhamnaceae) can act as natural immunostimulators. In the present study, natural and potent immunostimulatory compounds were isolated from Zizyphus mauritiana and their immunostimulatory activities were studied.
Methods: Extracts of the stem bark were prepared in various solvents in the increasing order of polarity. These extracts were tested for their potential to stimulate phagocytosis. Ethanolic extract of stem bark, which was found to be effective in stimulating phagocytosis in macrophages, was further purified by adsorption column chromatography to get effective fraction termed as effective immunostimulatory fraction (EIF). EIF was tested for its potential to stimulate phagocytosis in macrophages, to induce proliferation in lymphocytes as well as splenocytes and to stimulate antibody formation in Wistar rats.
Results: Phytochemical analysis of EIF indicated that it is rich in alkaloids. On treatment with EIF (1 μg/ml), phagocytic potential of macrophages was raised 6 times, while on EIF treatment (100 μg/ml) lysosomal enzyme activity was doubled. Splenocytes and lymphocytes were found to proliferate with a stimulation index of 5 and 6 respectively, on treatment with EIF (10 μg/ml). In vivo, EIF was found to trigger antibody formation two times, elevate leucocyte count (by 700/Cu mm) and increase the weight of thymus (3 times) as well as spleen (1.3 times) as compared to control on oral administration to Wistar rats (10 mg/kg body weight).
Conclusions: Results of the experiments revealed that phytochemicals present in EIF appear to be excellent immunostimulators and can act as replacement for synthetic immunostimulators.