Is Micro Evolution in Tropical Country Women Resulting Low 25(OH)D Level?: A Cross Sectional Study in Indonesia
- *Corresponding Author:
- Dina Keumala Sari
Department of Nutrition
Medical Faculty of Sumatera Utara
Jl. Dr. Mansur, No. 5, Kampus USU
Padang Bulan, Medan, Indonesia
Tel: +62 61 8212296, +62 8174894768
E-mail: [email protected]; [email protected]
Received date: October 25, 2013; Accepted date: November 23, 2013; Published date: November 25, 2013
Citation: Sari DK, Damanik HA, Lipoeto NI, Lubis Z (2013) Is Micro Evolution in Tropical Country Women Resulting Low 25(OH)D Level?: A Cross Sectional Study in Indonesia. J Nutr Food Sci 4:246. doi: 10.4172/2155-9600.1000246
Copyright: © 2013 Sari DK, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Background: Low serum 25(OH)D levels often occur during the winter and spring of temperate countries due to low sun exposure but there are many other factors linked with vitamin D deficiency that can occur in tropical countries. Objectives: to assess 25(OH)D serum levels, to compare the difference of associated factors, and to find the factors that independently associated with 25(OH)D level. Method: This cross sectional study was conducted on 156 healthy Indonesian women during the dry season. This study measured serum 25(OH)D levels, examined two single nucleotide polymorphisms of vitamin D receptor gene (TaqI and BsmI), assessed lifestyle factor, and body fat percentage. Results: The mean serum 25(OH)D level was 18.8 ± 7.0 ng/mL, there were 148 subjects categorized as either deficient and insufficient, and eight were categorized as sufficient. However, none of the subjects achieved normal 25(OH)D values (normal value in sunny countries: 54-90 ng/mL), all participants were heterozygous (T>C for TaqI and A>G for BsmI). There were associations between vitamin D deficiency-insufficiency and sufficiency with indoors occupation (p<0.001), low vitamin D intake (p=0.046), less than 1 hour sun ray exposure (p<0.001), and low physical activity (p=0.01). Logistic regression showed that prediction factors that independently associated with the risk of low 25(OH)D level were sun ray exposure, occupation, and vitamin D intake. Conclusion: The results showed that vitamin D deficiency may occur in women with indoors occupation, low vitamin D intake, less than one hour sun ray exposure, and low physical activity. All participants were heterozygous (T>C for TaqI and A>G for BsmI). Factors that most influenced vitamin D serum were sun ray exposure, occupation, and vitamin D intake.