Italian Children Go to School with a Hydration Deficit
|Baroukh M Assael1*, Marco Cipolli1, Ilaria Meneghelli1, Marianna Passiu1, Sira Cordioli1, Gloria Tridello1, Eve M. Lepicard2, Florence Constant3, Nasrine Hawili3 and Gérard Friedlander4|
|1Centro Ricerca Clinica Fibrosi Cistica, Ospedale Civile Maggiore, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Integrata Verona, P.le Stefani, 1, 37126 Verona, Italy|
|2Institute for European Expertise in Physiology, 21 rue Leblanc, 75015 Paris, France|
|3Nestlé Waters M.T., 12 boulevard Garibaldi, 92793 Issy Les Moulineaux, France|
|4Department of Physiology, European Hospital Georges-Pompidou, AP-HP, Paris, France / Growth and Signaling Research Center Inserm U845, Paris Descartes University, Paris, France|
|Corresponding Author :||Baroukh Maurice Assael
Professor, Centro Ricerca Clinica Fibrosi Cistica
Ospedale Civile Maggiore, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Integrata Verona
P.le Stefani, 1, 37126 Verona, Italy
Tel: +00 39 04 58 12 2370
Fax: +00 39 04 58 12 2042
E-mail: mailto:[email protected]
|Received May 15, 2012; Accepted May 29, 2012; Published May 31, 2012|
|Citation: Assael BM, Cipolli M, Meneghelli I, Passiu M, Cordioli S, et al. (2012) Italian Children Go to School with a Hydration Deficit. J Nutr Disorders Ther 2:114. doi:10.4172/2161-0509.1000114|
|Copyright: © 2012 Assael BM, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.|
Background and aims: Fluid requirements of children vary as a function of gender and age. To our knowledge, there is very little literature on the hydration status of Italian children. We assessed morning hydration status in a large sample of 515 Italian school children aged 9 to 11 years.
Methods: Recruited children completed a questionnaire on fluid and food intake at breakfast and collected a urine sample the very same day after breakfast. Breakfast food and fluid nutritional composition was analysed and urine osmolality was measured using a cryoscopic osmometer.
Results: More than two thirds of the children had urine osmolality above 800 mOsmol/kg while 35.0% had urine osmolality over 1000 mOsmol/kg. This was more frequent in boys than in girls (71.9% versus 62.5%; p=0.02). Total water intake (water coming from both food and fluid) as well as total fluid intake at breakfast were significantly and inversely correlated with urine osmolality.
Conclusions: Almost two thirds of the children in this large cohort had evidence of a hydration deficit when they went to school in the morning, despite breakfast intake. Children’s fluid intake at breakfast does not suffice to maintain an adequate hydration status for the whole morning.