Lack of Security: A Major Phenomenal of Brain Drain in District Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Shah M* and Jamal H
Department of Rural Sociology, University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan
- *Corresponding Author:
- Shah M
Professor and Chairman, Department of Rural Sociology
University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan
E-mail: l: [email protected]
Received Date: May 06, 2016; Accepted Date: June 15, 2016; Published Date: June 23, 2016
Citation: Shah M, Jamal H (2016) Lack of Security: A Major Phenomenal of Brain Drain in District Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. J Account Mark 5:180. doi: 10.4172/2168-9601.1000180
Copyright: © 2016 Shah M, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
The present study was conducted in district Swat, with the sole aim of discovering the situational facts leading to brain drain. A sample size of 300 respondents, who had permanent residence in Australia, US, and UK and who had random visiting to their families back at homeland were randomly selected. Independent variable lack of security and dependent variable brain drain was devised through developing certain questions on likert scale. Dependent and independent variables were indexed and cross tabulated and explained through the application of Chi square statistics. The study found that terrorism, kidnapping, fear of youth forced inclusion, poor laws, poverty, prolong legislative system are some of the pushing factors. The study further explored that all income groups were equally prone to lack of security. However, level of qualification did not yield any significant results with brain drain due to the insecure and fearful environment on the respondents at controlling income and education qualification at multi variate level respectively. The study concluded that a militant culture was in prevalence to the presence of elements. Kidnapping rate was high and local youth had a tendency of getting militant. A local area has no proper job market, which led to a holistic movement of feeling the areas by the locals. Most of the people had the inclinations of moving around, this leading to brain drain. State of the art training for local law enforcing agencies, re-vibrating of local job market and the reawakening of cohesive and integrating cultural values were some of the recommendations in light of the study.