Large-Scale Bose-Einstein Condensation in a Vapor of Cesium Atoms at Normal Temperature (T=353K)
Institute of Quantum Electronics, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang, China
- *Corresponding Author:
- You PL Institute of Quantum Electronics, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang, 524025 China, Tel: 41446334570; E-mail: [email protected]
Received date August 01, 2016; Accepted date August 12, 2016; Published date August 22, 2016
Citation: You PL (2016) Large-Scale Bose-Einstein Condensation in a Vapor of Cesium Atoms at Normal Temperature (T=353K). J Material Sci Eng 5:276. doi:10.4172/2169-0022.1000276
Copyright: © 2016 You PL. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Large-scale BEC of cesium at T=353 K was first observed. Until now, scientists have applied magnetic fields and lasers, but never applied electric fields, and atoms are oriented at random, so observation of BEC is very difficult. Our innovation lies in the application of electric fields. We theoretically proved that alkali atom (include Cs) may be polar atom doesn't conflict with quantum mechanics. Variation of the capacitance with temperature offers a means of separating the polar and non-polar atom. Cs vapor was filled in cylindrical capacitor. Our experiment shows that Cs is polar atom because its capacitance is related to temperature. In the past, to realize the phase transition, ultralow temperature is necessary. But now we don’t require ultralow temperature, because we use the critical voltage Vc to achieve the phase transition. From the entropy S=Nk ln 2πe /a=0, a=dV/kTH =2πe, Vc ≈ 63volts. When V < Vc, S > 0; when V >Vc, S < 0, phase transition occurred. When V=350 volts, the capacitance decreased from C=1.97C0 to C ≈ C0 (C0 is the vacuum capacitance), this result implies that almost all Cs atoms (more than 98.9%), like as dipoles, are aligned with the field. We create BEC with 1.928×1017 atoms, these atoms have the same momentum. Cs material with purity 99.95% was supplied by Strem Chemicals Co., USA. Both BEC and superconductivity are condensed in the momentum space, therefore these two kinds of condensation can’t be observed with the naked eye. When superconductivity occurs, the resistance R≈0, a simple and direct method to observe superconductivity is to measure the resistance by voltammetry. Similarly, when BEC occurs, the electric susceptibility χe=C/C0 –1 ≈ 0, a simple and direct method to observe BEC is to measure the capacitance by cylindrical capacitor. BEC is also a quasi-superconducting state.