Leishmaniasis: Epidemiology, Control and Future Perspectives with Special Emphasis on Egypt
- *Corresponding Author:
- Mohamed Bessat
Department of Parasitology
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
Alexandria University, Edfina – Rasheed Line
Behaira, Egypt, Post Code: 22758
Tel: +2 (0) 1011009452
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: July 10, 2015; Accepted Date: March 09, 2015; Published Date: March 16, 2015
Citation: Bessat M,Okpanma AC,Shanat ES (2015) Leishmaniasis: Epidemiology, Control and Future Perspectives with Special Emphasis on Egypt. J Trop Dis 2:153. doi:10.4172/2329-891X.1000153
Copyright: © 2015 Bessat M, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Leishmaniasis is a protozoan disease that is recorded in several Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) countries including Egypt. In Egypt, both forms of the disease that are Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) were recorded in several geographical localities. Different Leishmania isolates were isolated from different cases of leishmaniasis where several diagnostic tests that include parasite culturing, patterns of isoenzymes, inoculation of experimental animal models and molecular methods were used to define the underlined causative organism in each case. However, several reports of conflict in these studies make it harder to compile a map of disease distribution, its prevalence, the causative Leishmania species and the type of vector sandfly involved. Another significant problem is the absence of notification system with many of disease cases were just went unreported or been treated from dermatological aspect (CL) or internal medicine aspect (VL). All of these factors contribute to the neglect of the disease by health authorities and hinder the prospective of any control programs that can be deployed to combat it. In this review, we will start by summarizing the most recent data on the epidemiology, disease patterns and the life cycle of the causative organism. Then, in a more specific way, we will move to discuss the history of the disease and its geographical distribution, and to proceed by discussing the currently applied methods of diagnosis, and to finish by highlighting the control and treatment programs that are in act against the disease. All of the above will principally contribute to a better understanding of the disease epidemiology and will provide a foundation upon which more effective control and treatment programs should be developed..