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Long Term Ocular Effects of Mustard Gas Poisoning: A Cross-Sectional Study in Iraqi Kurdish Civilians | OMICS International | Abstract
ISSN: 2155-6121

Journal of Allergy & Therapy
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Research Article

Long Term Ocular Effects of Mustard Gas Poisoning: A Cross-Sectional Study in Iraqi Kurdish Civilians

Mostafa Naderi1, Mostafa Ghanei1, Khosro Jadidi1, Mohammad Gholami-Fesharaki2 and Zohreh Poursaleh1*

1Chemical Injuries Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Iran

2Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

*Corresponding Author:
Zohreh Poursaleh
Chemical Injuries Research Center
Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences
Tehran, Iran
Tel: 09122594523
Fax: +9821 882484511
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: Apr 10, 2014; Accepted date: May 30, 2014; Published date: June 04, 2014

Citation: Naderi M, Ghanei M, Jadidi K, Gholami-Fesharaki M, Poursaleh Z (2014) Long Term Ocular Effects of Mustard Gas Poisoning: A Cross-Sectional Study in Iraqi Kurdish Civilians. J Allergy Ther 5:177. doi: 10.4172/2155-6121.1000177

Copyright: © 2014 Naderi M, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Background: Iraqi forces utilized a range of chemical weapons including sulfur mustard (SM) and other unknown chemical warfare agents against Iraqi Kurdish civilians in the 1980s. Little data exist regarding the chronic and delayed destructive lesions in the ocular organ caused by this exposure. The aim of this study was to evaluate and validate the severity of eye injuries in Kurdish subjects with chronic and delayed-onset mustard gas lesions.

Methods: This cross-sectional study conducted by simple random sampling on 303 people who had history of exposure to chemical weapons in February 2009 in Sulaimany, Iraq. Medical history, symptoms, ocular conditions, clinical course, and treatment measures were reviewed. Statistical analysis was accomplished using SPSS/18, Chi-square test.

Results: The present samples comprised of 49.8% were male and 50.2% were female. The mean age of the patients was 43.7 ± 13.1. Ophthalmic symptoms including tearing (96.7%), itching (96.0%), red eye (95.4%), blurred vision (84.2%), and vision loss (37.3%) were most common in subjects from Halabja, who also made up the majority of participants. Moderate to severe mustard gas keratitis was seen in 12.9% subjects (n=39), and severe complications were most common in subjects from Dukan.

Conclusion: The investigation findings suggest that the need of Iraqi Kurdish chemical warfare victims with moderate to severe ophthalmologic complications for the provision of healthcare and follow-up is urgent. Further research also is necessary to measure the results of follow-up on Kurdish victims with mustard gas keratitis.


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