Macrophage Polarisation: A collaboration of Differentiation, Activation and Pre-Programming?
|Andrew D. Foey*|
|School of Biomedical & Healthcare Sciences, Peninsula Schools of Medicine & Dentistry, Drake Circus, Plymouth University, Plymouth PL4 8AA, UK|
|Corresponding Author :||Andrew D. Foey
School of Biomedical & Healthcare Sciences
Peninsula Schools of Medicine & Dentistry
Drake Circus, Plymouth University, Plymouth PL4 8AA, UK
E-mail: [email protected]
|Received December 31, 2014; Accepted January 27, 2015; Published February 03, 2015|
|Citation: Foey AD (2015) Macrophage Polarisation: A Collaboration of Differentiation and Activation Signals as well as Monocyte Pre-Programming in Health and Disease?. J Clin Cell Immunol 6:293. doi: 10.4172/2155-9899.1000293|
|Copyright: © 2015 Foey AD. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.|
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Macrophages (Mϕs) exhibit a sliding scale of functional heterogeneity ranging from pro-inflammatory, immune activatory and anti-tumoral responses to anti-inflammatory, regulatory and pro-tumoral activity. These effector responses are reflected in distinct Mϕ subsets; the M1/classically activated- and M2/alternatively activated subsets. The functional diversity is determined by the combination of Mϕ subset differentiation, activation, signalling and preprogramming in separate monocyte subsets. This diversity in Mϕ subset and functionality is also reflected in mucosal pathologies associated with chronic inflammation (Crohn’s disease, chronic periodontitis) and immunosuppression observed in solid tumours (oral squamous cell carcinoma). The relative functional plasticity between these monocytes and Mϕs represents a realistic therapeutic regimen in the treatment of these Mϕ-driven diseases. This review will discuss the research evidence that is suggestive of the manipulation of Mϕ polarisation plasticity through pre-programming, differentiation, activation and tolerisation in the therapeutic intervention for chronic inflammation and solid tumours.