alexa Macrophage Polarization in AIDS: Dynamic Interface between Anti-Viral and Anti-Inflammatory Macrophages during Acute and Chronic Infection | OMICS International
ISSN: 2155-9899

Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
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Review Article

Macrophage Polarization in AIDS: Dynamic Interface between Anti-Viral and Anti-Inflammatory Macrophages during Acute and Chronic Infection

Tricia HB*, Joshua Walker and Kenneth CW
Department of Biology, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA, 02467, USA
Corresponding Author : Department of Biology- Boston College
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Received March 18, 2015; Accepted June 20, 2015; Published June 24, 2015
Citation: Tricia HB, Walker J, Kenneth CW (2015) Macrophage Polarization in AIDS: Dynamic Interface between Anti-Viral and Anti-
Inflammatory Macrophages during Acute and Chronic Infection. J Clin Cell Immunol 6:333. doi: 10.4172/2155-9899.1000333
Copyright: ©2015 Tricia HB et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Abstract

Monocyte and macrophage inflammation in parenchymal tissues during acute and chronic HIV and SIV infection plays a role in early anti-viral immune responses and later in restorative responses. Macrophage polarization is observed in such responses in the central nervous system (CNS) and the heart and cardiac vessels that suggest early responses are M1 type antiviral responses, and later responses favor M2 restorative responses. Macrophage polarization is unique to different tissues and is likely dictated as much by the local microenvironment as well as other inflammatory cells involved in the viral responses. Such polarization is found in HIV infected humans, and the SIV infected animal model of AIDS, and occurs even with effective anti-retroviral therapy. Therapies that directly target macrophage polarization in HIV infection have recently been implemented, as have therapies to directly block traffic and accumulation of macrophages in tissues.

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