alexa Macrophage Polarization in Chagas Disease
ISSN: 2155-9899

Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
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Review Article

Macrophage Polarization in Chagas Disease

Nagela Ghabdan Zanluqui1, Pryscilla Fanini Wowk1 and Phileno Pinge-Filho2*
1Instituto Carlos Chagas, ICC-Fiocruz-PR, Rua Prof. Algacyr Munhoz Máder 3775, Bloco C CIC, 81350-010, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil
2Laboratório de Imunopatologia Experimental, Departamento de Ciências Patológicas Centro de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, 86051-970, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil
Corresponding Author : Pinge-Filho P
Departamento de Ciências Patológicas
Centro de Ciências Biológicas
Universidade Estadual de Londrina
86051-970, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil
Tel: + 55 43 3371-4978
Fax: + 55 43 3371-4465
E-mail: [email protected]
Received February 26, 2015; Accepted March 30, 2015; Published April 06, 2015
Citation: Zanluqui NG, Wowk PF, Pinge-Filho P (2015) Macrophage Polarization in Chagas Disease. J Clin Cell Immunol 6:317. doi: 10.4172/2155-9899.1000317
Copyright: © 2015 Zanluqui NG, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Abstract

Macrophages are terminally differentiated cells of the mononuclear phagocytic system, which play an indispensable role in the maintenance of homeostasis and defense. Macrophages can be phenotypically polarized by the microenvironment to mount specific functional responses. Polarized macrophages can be broadly classified into two main groups: classically activated macrophages (M1), whose prototypical activating stimuli are IFN-γ and LPS, and alternatively activated macrophages (M2), further subdivided in M2a (after exposure to IL-4 or IL-13), M2b (immune complexes in combination with IL-1β or LPS) and M2c (IL-10, TGF-β or glucocorticoids). M1 exhibit potent microbicidal properties and promote strong IL-12-mediated Th1 responses, while M2 macrophages support Th2- associated effector functions. Here we review the main functions of polarized macrophages in Chagas disease and discuss their potential value in evaluating disease severity.

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