Mad Honey Poisoning: A ReviewRakesh Gami1* and Prajwal Dhakal2
- *Corresponding Author:
- Rakesh Gami
Assistant Professor, Department of Epidemiology
College of Medicine, All Saints University
St. Vincent and The Grenadines
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: January 01, 2017; Accepted date: January 19, 2017; Published date: January 20, 2017
Citation: Gami R, Dhakal P (2017) Mad Honey Poisoning: A Review. J Clin Toxicol 7:336. doi: 10.4172/2161-0495.1000336
Copyright: © 2017 Gami R, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Mad honey, which is different from normal commercial honey, is contaminated with grayanotoxins and causes intoxication. It is used as an alternative therapy for hypertension, peptic ulcer disease and is also being used more commonly for its aphrodisiac effects. Grayanotoxins, found in rhododendron plant, act on sodium ion channels and place them in partially open state. They also act on muscarinic receptors. Cardiac manifestations of mad honey poisoning include hypotension and rhythm disorders such as bradycardia, nodal rhythm, atrial fibrillation, complete atrioventricular block or even complete heart block. Additionally, patients may develop dizziness, nausea and vomiting, weakness, sweating, blurred vision, diplopia and impaired consciousness. Diagnosis is made with history of honey intake and clinical presentation. Treatment is symptomatic. Patients presenting with severe hypotension and bradycardia may need prompt treatment with fluids, atropine or even temporary pacing if other measures fail. Although fatalities are rare, poisoning may be hard to recognize and arrhythmias may be life-threatening.