Magnetic Nanocarriers Enhance Drug Delivery Selectively to Human Leukemic CellsKheireddine El-Boubbou1,2*#, Rizwan Ali2#, Hassan M Bahhari2 and Mohamed Boudjelal2
- *Corresponding Author:
- Kheireddine El-Boubbou
King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences (KSAU-HS)
King Abdulaziz Medical City
National Guard Health Affairs
Riyadh 11481, Saudi Arabia
Tel: 966 1142995625
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: May 02, 2017; Accepted Date: May 16, 2017; Published Date: May 23, 2017
Citation: El-Boubbou K, Ali R, Bahhari HM, Boudjelal M (2017) Magnetic Nanocarriers Enhance Drug Delivery Selectively to Human Leukemic Cells. J Nanomed Nanotechnol 8: 441. doi: 10.4172/2157-7439.1000441
Copyright: © 2017 El-Boubbou K, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Selective drug delivery to human leukemia cells using a nanoparticulate chemotherapeutic formulation is hugely needed. In this work, we report the development of a magnetic nanocarrier made of PVP-stabilized magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (PMNP) loaded with the anticancer drug Doxorubicin (Dox) as a promising selective drug carrier to different types of human leukemia and normal cells. Our results revealed that while the unloaded MNPs were not potent to any of the cells, [email protected] showed significant toxicities, effectively killing the different leukemia cells, albeit at different inhibitory concentrations. Interestingly and superior to free Dox, [email protected] showed enhanced and significant inhibition towards the human monocytic THP-1 cells compared to human promyelocytic leukemia cells HL-60 (2-fold enhanced cytotoxicities), with the least potency towards the normal peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cells (up to 6-fold). Nonetheless, free Dox was found to be concurrently less toxic to all the three cell lines tested. The cytotoxic effects obtained were further confirmed by live confocal imaging and electron microscopy. Both imaging techniques confirmed distinct morphological changes (membrane blebbing, shrinkage, and condensation) corresponding to typical apoptotic features in the treated leukemia cells compared to normal PBMC cells. The observed enhanced cytotoxic effects of [email protected] is mostly dependent upon the selective and differential endocytic uptake of [email protected], with subsequent release of Dox intracellularly to the cytoplasm after 6 h, which then translocates to the nucleus after 24 h, causing apoptotic cell death. Importantly, magnetic Dox nanocarrier described here reduces the unwanted diffusive side effects of the free drug and allows selective drug delivery to leukemic cells, allowing its potential use for leukemic patients’ theranostics.