Malignant Nodular Hidradenocarcinoma Arising on the Areola of a Male Patient: Case Report of an Ã¢ÂÂOrphan DiseaseÃ¢ÂÂ and Review of the LiteratureEleonora Giorgini1*, Gregorio Tugnoli1, Silvia Aprile1, Guido Collina2, Silvia Villani1, Andrea Biscardi1,Simone Maggioli1, Eli Avisar3 and Salomone Di Saverio1
- *Corresponding Author:
- Eleonora Giorgini
Department of Emergency & Surgery
Maggiore Hospital, Emergency Surgery and Trauma Surgery Unit
Bologna Local Health District Largo Nigrisoli 2, 40100 Bologna, Italy
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: April 12, 2012; Accepted date: May 18, 2012; Published date: May 22, 2012
Citation: Giorgini E, Tugnoli G, Aprile S, Collina G, Villani S, et al.(2012) Malignant Nodular Hidradenocarcinoma Arising on the Areola of a Male Patient: Case Report of an “Orphan Disease” and Review of the Literature. J Carcinogene Mutagene 3:129. doi: 10.4172/2157-2518.1000129
Copyright: © 2012 Giorgini E, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Background: Patients with schizophrenia have a higher incidence of smoking relative to the general population. They are more likely to smoke high-tar cigarettes than patients of other mental health problems. Smokers with this diagnostic category are therefore more likely to be addicted to nicotine, and are at an increased risk of developing serious health complications. Despite this, they are generally unlikely to seek help to quit smoking, a function of their inability to do so. Although this is the case, patients with schizophrenia are rarely involved in smoking cessation activities. Hence, this case study of a smoking cessation programmes. Aim: The intention of this case study is to explore the effectiveness of an integrated smoking cessation programme in enabling patients to stop smoking. This paper describes the application of this programme on patients with schizophrenia and nicotine addiction. It also describes roles played by its components in smoking cessation. Methods: The integrated programme comprised of nicotine replacement therapy and motivational interviewing. It is a 10-week programme that involved six patients. One patient was also offered an additionally 6-week tailor-made integrated programme that comprised of nicotine replacement therapy and motivational interviewing that creates space for discussion of religious beliefs. This is first to include religion, nicotine replacement therapy and motivational interviewing in a smoking cessation treatment for patients with schizophrenia. Results: Five patients quitted smoking at the end of the 10-week programme, and one stopped smoking at the end of the additional 6-week programme. In sum, the integrated programme was successful in enabling patients to stop smoking. Conclusion: These findings indicate that stopping smoking is possible for individuals with schizophrenia, especially if the treatment is tailor-made to incorporate patients’ wishes. Quitting should not be considered impossible for individuals of this patient group. Religious beliefs do have a part to play in smoking cessation. The strength of religious identification may enable people to abstain from substance use and misuse.