alexa Manipulation of Microbiome, a Promising Therapy for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
ISSN: 2155-9899

Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
Open Access

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Review Article

Manipulation of Microbiome, a Promising Therapy for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

Dapeng Jin1, Hongyu Zhang2 and Jun Sun1*
1Department of Biochemistry, Rush University, Chicago, IL, USA, 60612
2Department of Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China
Corresponding Author : Jun Sun, PhD
Associate Professor, Departments of Biochemistry
Medicine (GI), Immunology/Microbiology
Rush University Medical Center, Cohn Research Building
1735 W. Harrison St., 5th Floor, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
Tel: (312) 563-3621
Fax: (312)942-3053
E-mail: [email protected]
Received April 14, 2014; Accepted July 09, 2014; Published July 16, 2014
Citation: Jin D, Zhang H, Sun J (2014) Manipulation of Microbiome, a Promising Therapy for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. J Clin Cell Immunol 5:234. doi: 10.4172/2155-9899.1000234
Copyright: © 2014 Jin D, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Abstract

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, are featured by chronic intestinal inflammation, which is becoming increasingly prevalent in Western societies, and is spreading to the rest of the world. Although the etiology of IBD is poorly understood, it is widely accepted that several factors may be crucial, which includes genetics, diet and lifestyle, immunity, environment, and microbiota. In the past decade, huge advances have been made toward a better understanding of IBD, epitomized by far-reaching progress in the field of microbiome. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of how changes in microbiota may affect the pathogenesis of IBD. Commensal bacteria, benign normally, are essentially opportunists that may readily take over, and potentially contributes to dysbiosis, which, in turn, promotes pathogenesis. Several pathogens, mainly Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis, adherent invasive Escherichia coli, Clostridium difficile, Campylobacter, and Salmonella, have been shown to be associated with IBD, but the causality remains unproven. The microbiome comprises of not only bacteria, but also viruses, bacteriophages, and fungi. However, little is known as per the role of the latter. We highlight recent research on viruses, bacteriophages, and fungi in IBD. We also discuss the progress on manipulating the microflora to serve therapeutic purposes. The methodology for manipulating the microbiota covers fecal transplantation, pre-, pro-, syn- and post-biotics, helminth therapy, bacteriocins, bacteriophage, etc., which greatly enriches the arsenal against IBD. Manipulation of intestinal microbiome represents a promising type of therapy for IBD.

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