Mannan-Binding Lectin (MBL) Deficient Individuals with the O/O Genotype are Highly Susceptible to Gastrointestinal Diseases
|Helga Bjarnadottir1*, Valgerdur Thorsteinsdottir2, Gudmundur Haukur Jorgensen2, Margret Arnardottir2 and
Bjorn Runar Ludviksson1,2
|1 Department of Immunology, Landspitali - The National University Hospital of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland|
|2 Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland|
|Corresponding Author :||Helga Bjarnadottir
Department of Immunology
Landspitali - The National University Hospital of Iceland
Hringbraut (building 14 at Eiriksgata)
101 Reykjavik, Iceland
Tel: (+354)543 5800
E-mail: [email protected]
|Received October 29, 2013; Accepted January 07, 2014; Published January 17, 2014|
|Citation: Bjarnadottir H, Thorsteinsdottir V, Jorgensen GH, Arnardottir M, Ludviksson BR (2014) Mannan-Binding Lectin (MBL) Deficient Individuals with the O/O Genotype are Highly Susceptible to Gastrointestinal Diseases. J Clin Cell Immunol 5:182. doi: 10.4172/2155-9899.1000182|
|Copyright: © 2014 Bjarnadottir H, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.|
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Background: Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) and ficolin-3 are initiators of the lectin pathway that is important for clearance of pathogens and apoptotic cells through complement activation. MBL deficiency (MBLD) has been associated with infectious complications but its clinical relevance in adults is unclear. Definition of MBLD is commonly linked to its low serum levels, but is mainly due to functional polymorphisms in the MBL2 gene leading to dysfunctional MBL forms. Homozygotes for dysfunctional alleles (O/O) have the lowest serum levels (<50 ng/ml) with a defect in opsonisation and complement activation. Ficolin-3 deficiency due to homozygosity of a frameshift mutation (1637delC) in the FCN3 gene was recently shown to be associated with pyogenic infections mainly in the lungs.
Objective: The aim of the study was to thoroughly evaluate the clinical findings of previously defined MBL deficient cohort in relation to their MBL2 and FCN3 genotypes.
Methods: A total of 120 adult individuals previously defined as MBL deficient (≤500 ng/ml) were genotyped for variants in the MBL2 gene and for the 1637delC allele in the FCN3 gene. They answered detailed questionnaire focused on pulmonary and gastrointestinal infections. For comparison, 63 adult individuals were randomly selected from the general population and served as control subjects.
Results: In the MBLD cohort the prevalence of genotypes A/A, A/O and O/O was 14.2%, 71.2%, and 14.2%, respectively. Thus, 85% carried the dysfunctional allele O. The MBLD cohort was significantly more prone to a variety of recurrent and severe infections than the control cohort. O/O individuals were more susceptible to oesophagitis and gastritis and had undergone gastroscopy significantly more often than A/A an A/O. Prevalence of heterozygosity (C/-) for the 1637delC allele was 4.2%.
Conclusion: MBL deficient individuals suffer from recurrent and severe forms of infections. The O allele might predispose to gastrointestinal diseases.