Markers in Hypertension: Insights for an Enhanced Blood Pressure Management
Antoine Kossaify* and Myriam Karam
University Hospital ND Secours, USEK, St Charbel Street, Byblos, Lebanon
- *Corresponding Author:
- Antoine Kossaify
University Hospital ND Secours
USEK, St Charbel Street, Byblos, Lebanon
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: July 02, 2014; Accepted Date: July 21, 2014; Published Date: August 03, 2014
Citation: Kossaify A, Karam M (2014) Markers in Hypertension: Insights for an Enhanced Blood Pressure Management. J Hypertens 3:165. doi:10.4172/2167-1095.1000165
Copyright: © 2014 Kossaify A, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Background and objectives: Hypertension is a prevalent condition that represents a significant morbidity and mortality. In this review, we sought to highlight the value of markers in systemic hypertension.
Design and method: we conducted a mini-review focusing on markers in hypertension, also we reviewed the JNC8-2014 and ESC/ESH-2013 recommendations in this perspective; a Pubmed search was performed accordingly.
Results: we presented and discussed markers of diagnosis and physiopathology of hypertension, markers of target organ damage and markers of blood pressure progression, with a focus on biomarkers. Genetics of hypertension is a rapidly moving field and at least 38 foci correlated to blood pressure are currently identified; the Ras homologous (Rho; RhoA, Rac1) are mainly involved in vascular smooth muscle tonus and vasoactivity; adipokines (leptin, TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1, and IL-1) expression is marked in patients with obesity related hypertension. The baroreceptor is a marker of dysautonomia which is implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension; miR-9 and miR-126 are markers of target organ damage in hypertensive patients. Markers of endothelial dysfunction, systemic inflammation, and oxidative stress were also discussed as causative or target organ markers in this context, with a focus on C-reactive protein and nitric oxide.
Conclusion: markers, mainly biomarkers, play an increasingly critical role in hypertension evaluation and management.