Mastitis in Camels in African and Middle East Countries
- *Corresponding Author:
- Archana P Iyer
Department of Biochemistry
King Abdulaziz University
Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: April 23, 2014; Accepted Date: June 10, 2014; Published Date: June 12, 2014
Citation: Iyer AP, Albaik M, Baghallab I (2014) Mastitis in Camels in African and Middle East Countries. J Bacteriol Parasitol 5:188. doi: 10.4172/2155-9597.1000188
Copyright: © 2014 Iyer AP, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Mastitis has been and still is the first health concern regarding dairy animals and their milk production industry. Mastitis affects all dairy animals without discrimination, even camels. It causes great economic losses if not detected and treated promptly. The major causes of both contagious and environmental mastitis are; Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus uberis, E. coli, and Klebsiella. Mastitis could be acquired by animal either contagiously or through the environment, each type has their own causative agents but the same pathogenic mechanism. The pathogen usually enters through the teat end and continues to reach the mammary gland inside the udder, then starts multiplying and producing toxins that evoke the immune responses in the animal to fight the infections, which eventually causes the mastitis symptoms from fever, inflammation, swelling, milk composition and color changes, and presence of somatic cells etc. This inflammation might differ in severity due to many factors such as pathogen type, animal health status and age, and lactation cycle of the animal as well. Inflammation could be either clinical, subclinical, or the most severe chronic mastitis. There are many techniques that detect the presence of mastitis, but still culturing techniques are considered the most accurate techniques to be used. Camels are the most important dairy animal in the Middle Eastern Countries as well as the African Horn Countries because of the desert areas they have which are mostly inhabited by Arabic tribes. Camels are considered the major source for both milk and meat production in these areas. Also, they are considered as wealth investment and insurance against natural disasters that usually occur in the desert and lead to livestock mortality. Camels represent high significance in the lives of people living in the desert and protecting them and their products from mastitis is the most challenging task they are facing. Although, it was always believed that camels are immune against many different infectious diseases, it was shown that they could acquire mastitis. Literature for the exact prevalence of camel mastitis is few, but indicates its presence almost in all Arabic countries. Practicing good sanitization techniques and control and management procedures as recommended by the respective organizations helps preventing mastitis infection in camels and ensures their healthy survival. In conclusion, camel mastitis although represent lower prevalence compared to other concerning disease within camels, it must be addressed carefully to avoid its spread and transformation into endemic infection in order to protect the camel population in these countries because of their extreme importance.