Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and Its Impact on Postnatal NeurodevelopmentCristina Manzano1, Maria Hernández Castellano1, Lucia Roman1, Marta Astals1, Adriana Bastons Compta1 and Oscar Garcia Algar1,2*
- *Corresponding Author:
- Oscar Garcia Algar
Paediatrics Unit, Hospital del Mar
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: August 22, 2016; Accepted date: September 19, 2016; Published date: September 26, 2016
Citation: Manzano C, Hernández Castellano M, Roman L, Astals M, Compta BA, et al. (2016) Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and Its Impact on Postnatal Neurodevelopment. Clinics Mother Child Health 13:249. doi: 10.4172/2090-7214.1000249
Copyright: © 2016 Manzano C, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Background: Nicotine from maternal active smoking or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is still the most prevalent substance of abuse during pregnancy in industrialized countries. The negative effects of exposure to tobacco smoke on foetus development have been widely described: impaired foetal growth and increased risks for gestational and perinatal outcomes.
Objective: The aim of this review was to provide an overview on prenatal nicotine exposure and its behavioral and neurodevelopmental deleterious effects in new-borns and children.
Method: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for articles catalogued between 1992 and 2015. We identified relevant published studies that assessed the association between maternal smoking and neurodevelopment deleterious effects in offspring. From 33 citations, a total of 17 studies were included.
Results: Literature definitively supports a strong association between exposed new-borns and signs of stress and neonatal withdrawal symptoms. Furthermore, an association between exposure to nicotine and attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children has been reported in many studies, as well as a wide range of externalizing outcomes, especially rule-breaking and aggressive behaviour, with increased risk of conduct disorders and crime.
Conclusions: It is necessary to follow up children with prenatal exposure to ETS in order to detect neurodevelopment effects during childhood. We also recommend the implementation of campaigns to avoid smoking in pregnant women, with structured medical advice and protection of pregnant women and children from ETS.