Measuring Outcome in the Treatment of Cocaine Dependence
Paul Crits-Christoph1*, Robert Gallop2, Mary Beth Connolly Gibbons1, Jaclyn S Sadicario1 and George Woody1
1Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, 3535 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
2Applied Statistics Program, Department of Mathematics, West Chester University, 25 University Avenue, West Chester, PA 19383, USA
- *Corresponding Author:
- Paul Crits-Christoph
Center for Psychotherapy Research
Department of Psychiatry
University of Pennsylvania, 3535 Market Street
Suite 650, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: January 16, 2013; Accepted date: January 30, 2013; Published date: February 01, 2013
Citation: Crits-Christoph P, Gallop R, Gibbons MBC, Sadicario JS, Woody G (2013) Measuring Outcome in the Treatment of Cocaine Dependence. J Alcoholism Drug Depend 1:108. doi:10.4172/2329-6488.1000108
Copyright: ©2013 Crits-Christoph P, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Background: Little is known about the extent to which outcome measures used in studies of the treatment of cocaine dependence are associated with longer-term use and with broader measures of clinical improvement. The current study examined reductions in use, and abstinence-oriented measures, in relation to functioning and longerterm clinical benefits in the treatment of cocaine dependence
Methods: Overall drug use, cocaine use, and functioning in a number of addiction-related domains for 487 patients diagnosed with DSM-IV cocaine dependence and treated with one of four psychosocial interventions in the NIDA Cocaine Collaborative Treatment Study were assessed monthly during 6 months of treatment and at 9, 12, 15, and 18 month follow-up.
Results: Measures of during-treatment reduction in use were moderately correlated with drug and cocaine use measures 12 months, but showed non-significant or small correlations with measures of functioning at 12 months. Highest correlations were evident for abstinence measures (maximum consecutive days abstinence and completely abstinent) during treatment in relation to sustained (3 month) abstinence at 12 months. Latent class analysis of patterns of change over time revealed that most patients initially (months 1 to 4 of treatment) either became abstinent immediately or continued to use every month. Over the course of follow-up, patients either maintained abstinence or used regularly – intermittent use was less common.
Conclusions: There were generally small associations between various measures of cocaine use and longterm clinical benefits other than abstinence, was associated with continued abstinence. No one method of measuring outcome of treatment of cocaine dependence appears superior to others.