Menopause in HIV Infected Women: A Comprehensive Approach to Physical and Psychological Health
|Berardi Cecilia2, Rossi Rosario2, Bellasi Antonio3, Zona Stefano1, Carli Federica1, Casalgrandi Chiara2, Garlassi Elisa1, Santoro Antonella1, Mussini Cristina2 and Guaraldi Giovanni1*|
|1Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences for Adults and Children, Clinic of Infectious Diseases, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy|
|2Department of medical, surgical, dental and morphological sciences, division of oncology, transplantation and regenerative medicine, Univeristy of Modena and Reggio
Emilia, Modena, Italy
|3Departement of medicine, Division of nephrology, Azienda Ospedaliera Sant’Anna, Como, Italy|
|Corresponding Author :||Giovanni Guaraldi
Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences for Adults and Children Infectious Diseases Clinic
University of Modena and Reggio Emilia School of Medicine
Via del Pozzo 7141100 Modena, Italy
E-mail: [email protected]
|Received March 25, 2014; Accepted May 21, 2014; Published May 26, 2014|
|Citation: Cecilia B, Rosario R, Antonio B, Stefano Z, Federica C, et al. (2014) Menopause in HIV Infected Women: A Comprehensive Approach to Physical and Psychological Health. J Osteopor Phys Act 2:117 doi: 10.4172/2329-9509.1000117|
|Copyright: © 2014 Cecilia B, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.|
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Objective: The number of HIV-infected women experiencing menopause is rapidly increasing. The aim of this study was to compare the physical and psychological health profile of menopausal women with and without HIV.
Methods: Case-control study, assessing clinical manifestations of menopause in HIV infected cases and in uninfected controls. Determinants of physical (subclinical cardiovascular diseases, prevalence of diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, hypothyroidism and risk of osteoporotic fractures) and psychological health (depression, quality of life in menopause and sexual dysfunction) were evaluated. The prevalence of poly-pathology (Pp) defined as the concurrent presence of 2 or more diseases was also assessed.
Results: 29 (47.5%) HIV-infected and 32 (52.5%) HIV-uninfected postmenopausal women infection were enrolled. On average, menopause occurred 3 years earlier in HIV-infected than in uninfected women (p= .01). In spite of a trend toward a greater prevalence of Pp (p=.22), the only physical indicators differing between cases and controls were a greater risk profile for osteoporotic fracture (p<0.001) and a significantly increased arterial stiffness (p=.007). In addition, cases exhibited a poorer psychological health profile with regard to depression (p=.005), sexual dysfunction (p=.02) and physical menopausal symptoms (p=.05).
Conclusion: In spite of a relatively similar physical health profile, menopause in HIV infected women is characterized by a poorer psychological profile compared to HIV uninfected women.