alexa Merging Wildlife and Environmental Monitoring Approache
ISSN: 2157-7145

Journal of Forensic Research
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Review Article

Merging Wildlife and Environmental Monitoring Approaches with Forensic Principles: Application of Unconventional and Non-Invasive Sampling in Eco-Pharmacovigilance

Ngaio L Richards1,3*, Sarah W Hall2,3, Nancy M Harrison2,4, Lata Gautam2,3, Karen S Scott5, Geraldine Dowling6, Irene Zorilla7 and Iñigo Fajardo8

1Working Dogs for Conservation, 52 Eustis Road, Three Forks, Montana, USA, 59752

2Department of Life Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, East Road Cambridge, CB1 1PT, UK

3Forensic Science and Chemistry Research Group, Anglia Ruskin University, East Road Cambridge, CB1 1PT, UK

4Animal and Environmental Research Group, Anglia Ruskin University, East Road Cambridge, CB1 1PT, UK

5Forensic Science, Arcadia University, 450 S. Easton Road, Glenside, Pennsylvania, USA 19038

6The State Laboratory, Backweston Laboratory Complex, Young's Cross, Celbridge, County Kildare, Ireland

7Agencia de Medio Ambiente y Agua de Andalucía, Centro de Análisis y Diagnóstico de la Fauna Silvestre. Consejería de Medio Ambiente y Ordenación del Territorio de la Junta de Andalucía, Spain

8Dirección General de Gestión del Medio Natural. Consejería de Medio Ambiente y Ordenación del Territorio de la Junta de Andalucía, Spain; and Vulture Conservation Foundation (VCF), Switzerland

*Corresponding Author:
Ngaio L Richards
Working Dogs for Conservation
52 Eustis Road, Three Forks, Montana, USA 59752
Tel: 406-529-0384
E-mail: [email protected] and [email protected]

Received date: January 24, 2014; Accepted date: March 12, 2014; Published date: March 25, 2014

Citation: Richards NL, Hall SW, Harrison NM, Gautam L, Scott KS, et al. (2014) Merging Wildlife and Environmental Monitoring Approaches with Forensic Principles: Application of Unconventional and Non-Invasive Sampling in Eco-Pharmacovigilance. J Forensic Res 5:228. doi: 10.4172/2157-7145.1000228

Copyright: © 2014 Richards NL, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

 

Abstract

Pharmaceutical residues in the environment have the potential to harm wildlife. A population’s fragility or an animal’s secretive nature may preclude capture and the use of invasive/destructive sampling techniques that are typically used in a risk assessment. Conventionally favoured matrices gathered opportunistically from carcasses have a finite lifespan, thereby limiting the detection window. This multidisciplinary paper aims to promote the use of non-invasive approaches and optimize use of even the most degraded carcasses. We highlight a selection of promising alternative, unconventional and underutilized sample types that could be applied in environmental monitoring efforts and wildlife forensic investigations. With a focus on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), now under increasing scrutiny in the freshwater and terrestrial environment, we first illustrate current sampling practices and gaps in knowledge by summarizing exposure of: 1) aquatic organisms to urban effluent discharged into waterways, and, 2) scavenging species to veterinary residues in livestock and other carrion. We then consider the merits and limitations of a range of alternative environmentally robust sample options that offer a broader detection interval for NSAIDs, with emphasis on hair, wool and feathers. The viability of eyes/ocular material, bone matter, fecal matter, injection sites, ingesta/pellets and scavenging/coprophagous insects are also discussed.

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