Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and Its Main Complications: From Experimental Findings to Clinical PracticeMarcelo Ezquer1, Martha Arango-Rodriguez1, Maximiliano Giraud-Billoud1,2 and Fernando Ezquer1*
- *Corresponding Author:
- Fernando Ezquer
Center for Regenerative Medicine
School of Medicine, Clinica Alemana Universidad del Desarrollo
Av. Las Condes 12,438, Lo Barnechea, Santiago, Chile, 7710162
Tel: 56-2-2327 9425
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: July 11, 2014; Accepted date: August 21, 2014; Published date: August 23, 2014
Citation: Ezquer M, Arango-Rodriguez M, Giraud-Billoud M, Ezquer F (2014) Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and Its Main Complications: From Experimental Findings to Clinical Practice. J Stem Cell Res Ther 4:227. doi:10.4172/2157-7633.1000227
Copyright: © 2014 Ezquer M, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a complex multifactorial disorder which involves a loss of self-tolerance leading to the autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β−cells. Exogenous insulin administration cannot mimic precise pancreatic β-cell regulation of glucose homeostasis, thereby leading to severe long-term complications. Pancreas or islet transplant only provides partial exogenous insulin independence and induces several adverse effects, including increased morbidity and mortality. The scientific community and diabetic patients are thus, still waiting for an effective therapy which could preserve the remaining β-cells, replenish islet mass and protect newly-generated β-cells from autoimmune destruction. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been envisioned as a promising tool for T1DM treatment over the past few years, since they could differentiate into glucose-responsive insulin-producing cells. Their immunomodulatory and proangiogenic roles can be used to help arrest β-cell destruction, preserve residual β-cell mass, facilitate endogenous β-cell regeneration and prevent disease recurrence, thereby making them ideal candidates for the comprehensive treatment of diabetic patients. This review focuses on recent pre-clinical data supporting MSC use in regenerating β-cell mass and also in treating several T1DM-associated complications. Clinical trial results and the ongoing obstacles which must be addressed regarding the widespread use of such therapy are also discussed.