Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Therapies for ParkinsonÃ¢ÂÂs Disease: Progress, Controversies and Lessons for the Future
Melissa L.M. Khoo, Helen Tao and David D.F. Ma*
Blood Stem Cells and Cancer Research, St Vincent’s Centre for Applied Medical Research, and The University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2010, Australia
- Corresponding Author:
- David D. F. Ma
Blood Stem Cells and Cancer Research
St Vincent’s Centre for Applied Medical Research
Darlinghurst, NSW 2010, Australia
Fax: 612-8382 2645
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: October 15, 2011; Accepted Date: November 27, 2011; Published Date: December 01, 2011
Citation: Khoo MLM, Tao H, Ma DDF (2011) Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Therapies for Parkinson’s Disease: Progress, Controversies and Lessons for the Future. J Stem Cell Res Ther S2:005. doi:10.4172/2157-7633.S2-005
Copyright: © 2011 Khoo MLM, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
dentification of MSCs in the bone marrow. It is now recognized that MSCs possess the in vitro characteristics of stem cells with the abilities to proliferate, symmetrically divide, and produce multi-lineage mesodermal derivatives, making MSCs attractive candidates for use in potential cellular therapies. Furthermore, MSCs can be relatively easily isolated and expanded in culture with low tumorigenicity and teratoma formation, and have been reported to display immunomodulatory properties that may be advantageous in clinical transplantation. Discovery of the ability of MSCs to differentiate into cells of non-mesodermal tissues, particularly neural cells, has also raised the possibility of utilizing MSCs in regenerative and reparative therapies for neurological disorders. However, a number of hurdles re - main to be resolved, including conflicting findings concerning the capacity of MSCs to suppress immune responses and contribute to multiple tissue lineages, highlighting the need for a greater understanding of mechanisms under - lying the observed phenomena. In this review we will discuss: (1) recent advances in our understanding of MSC plasticity/transdifferentiation and immunomodulatory properties; (2) evidence for cell-based therapies, in particular MSC-based therapies for Parkinson’s disease; and (3) current challenges and potential strategies for the utilization of MSCs in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease.