Metabolic Disorders in HIV-infected Children Metabolic Disorders in HIVinfected ChildrenSpagnuolo MI*, Liguoro I and Guarino A
Department of Translation Science of Medicine University, Federico II, Naples, Italy
- Corresponding Author:
- Spagnuolo MI
Department of Translation Science of Medicine University
Federico II, Naples, Italy
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Received Date: October 14, 2014; Accepted Date: November 20, 2014; Published Date: November 26, 2014
Citation: Spagnuolo MI, Liguoro I, Guarino A (2014) Metabolic Disorders in HIV-infected Children Metabolic Disorders in HIV-infected Children. J Metabolic Synd 3:169. doi:10.4172/2167-0943.1000169
Copyright: © 2014 Spagnuolo MI, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has resulted in greater survival of patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, the use of these drugs has been associated with lipodystrophic syndrome (LS), which is characterized by metabolic alterations (dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, diabetes, and lactic acidosis) and abnormal corporal fat distribution. Clinically, LS may manifest as three different forms: lipohypertrophy (accumulation of fat in the central part of the body), lipoatrophy (loss of fat in the extremities, face and buttocks) and mixed (lipohypertrophy + lipoatrophy). Although its physiopathology has not been elucidated, some mechanisms have been described, including leptin and adiponectin deficiency, mitochondrial dysfunction and use of antiretroviral drugs. The type, dose and duration of the antiretroviral treatment, as well as age and puberty are the main risk factors. LS are also associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular illnesses, atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus. Follow up must be periodic, consisting of measurement of body fat distribution, evaluation of the lipid profile and insulin resistance.