Metabolic Syndrome is Associated with Increased Severity of Diabetic Retinopathy
|Anand CR1, Sandeep Saxena1*, Khushboo Srivastav1, Poonam Kishore1, Shashi K Bhaskar1, Arvind Misra2, Shankar M Natu3,
Abbas A Mahdi4 and Vinay K Khanna5
|1Department of Ophthalmology, King George’s Medical University, Lucknow, India|
|2Department of Medicine, King George’s Medical University, Lucknow, India|
|3Department of Pathology, King George’s Medical University, Lucknow, India|
|4Department of Biochemistry, King George’s Medical University, Lucknow, India|
|5Indian Institute of Toxicology and Research, Lucknow, India|
|Corresponding Author :||Sandeep Saxena
Department of Ophthalmology
King George’s Medical University
Lucknow, 226003, India
E-mail: [email protected]
|Received March 23, 2014; Accepted April 26, 2014; Published May 03, 2014|
|Citation: Anand CR, Saxena S, Srivastav K, Kishore P, Bhaskar SK, et al. (2014) Metabolic Syndrome is Associated with Increased Severity of Diabetic Retinopathy. J Metabolic Synd 3:145. doi:10.4172/2167-0943.1000145|
|Copyright: © 2014 Anand CR, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.|
Purpose: To study the association of metabolic syndrome with severity of diabetic retinopathy.
Materials and method: Seventy-one consecutive cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus of more than 10 years duration aged 38 to 82 years were included. Metabolic syndrome was identified as per American Heart Association- National Cholesterol Education Programme Adult Treatment Panel III (AHA-NCEP ATP III) criteria. All the cases were assessed for log MAR visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP) and seven field fundus photography. The photographs were scored for 16 diabetic lesions. A single severity level (identical to the ETDRS Interim Scale) was calculated for each eye by using the Vanderbilt Classification System. Data was analysed using paired t-test.
Results: Of the 71 cases, 47 cases fulfilled at least 3 of the ATP III criteria for metabolic syndrome. Among the cases of metabolic syndrome, 18 cases fulfilled 3 criteria, 28 cases fulfilled 4 criteria and 1 case fulfilled all the 5 criteria. The analyses of the mean Vanderbilt score for severity of retinopathy showed significantly higher score (more severe retinopathy) in cases of metabolic syndrome (p<0.001). Higher IOP was observed in cases of metabolic syndrome (p<0.001). LogMAR visual acuity deteriorated (p<0.01), severity of retinopathy and intraocular pressure increased (p<0.001, p<0.001, respectively) with an increase in the number of components of metabolic syndrome. Triglyceride levels showed positive correlation with severity of retinopathy (p<0.001) and IOP (p<0.001). High density lipoprotein (HDL) levels also showed positive correlation with vision (p<0.001), severity of retinopathy (p<0.001) and IOP (p<0.001).
Conclusion: Metabolic syndrome is significantly associated with increased severity of diabetic retinopathy, decreased visual acuity and increased IOP.