alexa Metabolic Syndrome is Associated with Increased Severity of Diabetic Retinopathy
ISSN: 2167-0943

Journal of Metabolic Syndrome
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Research Article

Metabolic Syndrome is Associated with Increased Severity of Diabetic Retinopathy

Anand CR1, Sandeep Saxena1*, Khushboo Srivastav1, Poonam Kishore1, Shashi K Bhaskar1, Arvind Misra2, Shankar M Natu3,
Abbas A Mahdi4 and Vinay K Khanna5
1Department of Ophthalmology, King George’s Medical University, Lucknow, India
2Department of Medicine, King George’s Medical University, Lucknow, India
3Department of Pathology, King George’s Medical University, Lucknow, India
4Department of Biochemistry, King George’s Medical University, Lucknow, India
5Indian Institute of Toxicology and Research, Lucknow, India
Corresponding Author : Sandeep Saxena
Department of Ophthalmology
King George’s Medical University
Lucknow, 226003, India
Tel: 91-9415160528
E-mail: [email protected]
Received March 23, 2014; Accepted April 26, 2014; Published May 03, 2014
Citation: Anand CR, Saxena S, Srivastav K, Kishore P, Bhaskar SK, et al. (2014) Metabolic Syndrome is Associated with Increased Severity of Diabetic Retinopathy. J Metabolic Synd 3:145. doi:10.4172/2167-0943.1000145
Copyright: © 2014 Anand CR, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Purpose: To study the association of metabolic syndrome with severity of diabetic retinopathy.

Materials and method: Seventy-one consecutive cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus of more than 10 years duration aged 38 to 82 years were included. Metabolic syndrome was identified as per American Heart Association- National Cholesterol Education Programme Adult Treatment Panel III (AHA-NCEP ATP III) criteria. All the cases were assessed for log MAR visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP) and seven field fundus photography. The photographs were scored for 16 diabetic lesions. A single severity level (identical to the ETDRS Interim Scale) was calculated for each eye by using the Vanderbilt Classification System. Data was analysed using paired t-test.

Results: Of the 71 cases, 47 cases fulfilled at least 3 of the ATP III criteria for metabolic syndrome. Among the cases of metabolic syndrome, 18 cases fulfilled 3 criteria, 28 cases fulfilled 4 criteria and 1 case fulfilled all the 5 criteria. The analyses of the mean Vanderbilt score for severity of retinopathy showed significantly higher score (more severe retinopathy) in cases of metabolic syndrome (p<0.001). Higher IOP was observed in cases of metabolic syndrome (p<0.001). LogMAR visual acuity deteriorated (p<0.01), severity of retinopathy and intraocular pressure increased (p<0.001, p<0.001, respectively) with an increase in the number of components of metabolic syndrome. Triglyceride levels showed positive correlation with severity of retinopathy (p<0.001) and IOP (p<0.001). High density lipoprotein (HDL) levels also showed positive correlation with vision (p<0.001), severity of retinopathy (p<0.001) and IOP (p<0.001).

Conclusion: Metabolic syndrome is significantly associated with increased severity of diabetic retinopathy, decreased visual acuity and increased IOP.


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