Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: Review of Diagnosis and Treatment OptionsMadalina Palaghia1*, Cristina Cijevschi Prelipcean2, Elena Cotea3, Nuțu Vlad1, Lucian Leneschi3, Valentin Bejan3, Lacramioara Perianu1, Alin Vasilescu1 and Eugen Târcoveanu1
- *Corresponding Author:
- Madalina Palaghia, MD
Department of Surgery, First Surgical Unit
“St. Spiridon” Hospital, Iași, Romania
Bd. Independenței, No 1,700111, Iași, Romania
Tel: +40 (0) 0232-24 08 22
Fax: +40 (0) 0232-21 77 81
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: May 20, 2014; Accepted Date: July 15, 2014; Published Date: December 28, 2014
Citation: Palaghia M, Prelipcean CC, Cotea E, Vlad N, Leneschi L, et al. Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: Review of Diagnosis and Treatment Options. Journal of Surgery [Jurnalul de chirurgie] 2015; 10(4):249-256 doi:10.7438/1584-9341-10-4-2
Copyright: © 2015 Palaghia M, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is currently considered the third most common neoplasm in the world according to the World Cancer Research Fund International with 1.4 million cases diagnosed in 2012, and the second malignity as cause of death. Approximately 1/5 of patients present directly with metastatic disease (mCRC), and 30 to 50% develop metastasis after surgical treatment for initially localized disease. The aims of the current study are to review the diagnostic particularities, treatment options and clinical evolution of mCRC. Metastatic process in CRC is long and complex, involving several mechanisms, molecular pathways and cellular types. Advances in medical imaging now allow an early and accurate diagnosis of metastatic lesions no matter their location. The progress of fundamental research in CRC led to understanding the molecular basis of the metastatic process that was further translated into novel chemotherapic and biological agents, thus increasing overall survival and and progression-free survival rates. Resection of liver, lung and brain metastases is crucial for survival when achievable and is more effective when completed by an oncological treatment and rigorous follow-up. All patients with mCRC should be discussed by a multidisciplinary team (surgeon, oncologist, radiologist, and gastroenterologist) in order to identify the most appropriate therapeutic management.