Metastatic Melanoma Induced Metabolic Changes in C57BL/6J Mouse Stomach Measured by 1H NMR SpectroscopyWang X 1,2, Hu M1, Liu M2 and Hu JZ1*
- *Corresponding Author:
- Hu JZ
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Richland, WA 99352, USA
Tel: (509) 371-6544
Fax: (509) 371-6546
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: November 17, 2014; Accepted date: December 03, 2014; Published date: December 05, 2014
Citation: Wang X, Hu M, Liu M, Hu JZ (2014) Metastatic Melanoma Induced Metabolic Changes in C57BL/6J Mouse Stomach Measured by 1H NMR Spectroscopy. Metabolomics 4:135. doi:2153-0769.1000135
Copyright: © 2014 Wang X, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes with high capability of invasion and rapid metastasis to other organs.Malignant melanoma is the most common metastatic malignancy found in Gastrointestinal Tract (GI). In this work, the 1H NMR-based metabolomics approach is used to investigate the metabolite profile differences of stomach tissue extracts of metastatic B16-F10 melanoma and control groups in C57BL/6J mouse and to search for specific metabolite biomarker candidates. Principal Component Analysis (PCA), an unsupervised multivariate data analysis method, is used to detect possible outliers, while Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structure (OPLS), a supervised multivariate data analysis method, is employed to evaluate important metabolites responsible for discriminating the control and the melanoma groups. Both PCA and OPLS results reveal that the melanoma group can be well separated from its control group. Among the 50 identified metabolites, it is found that the concentrations of 19 metabolites are significantly changed with the levels of O-phosphocholine and hypoxanthine down-regulated while the levels of isoleucine, leucine, valine, isobutyrate, threonine, cadaverine, alanine, glutamate, glutamine, methionine, citrate, asparagine, tryptophan, glycine, serine, uracil, and formate up-regulated in the melanoma group. These significantly changed metabolites are associated with multiple biological pathways and may be potential biomarkers for metastatic melanoma in stomach.