alexa Microevolution on Anthropogenically Changed Areas on the Example of Biscutella laevigata Plants from Calamine Waste Heap in Poland
ISSN: 2161-0525

Journal of Environmental & Analytical Toxicology
Open Access

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Research Article

Microevolution on Anthropogenically Changed Areas on the Example of Biscutella laevigata Plants from Calamine Waste Heap in Poland

Małgorzata Wierzbicka1*, Maria Pielichowska2, Olga Bemowska-Kałabun1 and Paweł Wąsowicz3

1Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw, I Miecznikowa 1, 02-09 Warsaw, Poland

2The Maria Grzegorzewska Academy of Special Education, Szczęśliwicka 40, 02-353 Warsaw, Poland

3Icelandic Institute of Natural History, Borgir við Norðurslóð, PO Box 180, IS-602 Akureyri, Iceland

*Corresponding Author:
Małgorzata Wierzbicka
Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw
I. Miecznikowa 1, 02-09 Warsaw, Poland
Tel: +48225542003
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: June 05, 2017 Accepted Date: June 12, 2017 Published Date: June 19, 2017

Citation: Wierzbicka M, Pielichowska M, Bemowska-Kałabun O, Wąsowicz P (2017) Microevolution on Anthropogenically Changed Areas on the Example of Biscutella laevigata Plants from Calamine Waste Heap in Poland. J Environ Anal Toxicol 7: 479. doi: 10.4172/2161-0525.1000479

Copyright: © 2017 Wierzbicka M, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.



In the era of increasing environmental pollution, microevolutionary processes occurring in plants inhabiting anthropogenic areas play a special role. With time, these processes may lead to formation of new plant species. A good example of occurrence of microevolutionary processes on anthropogenically altered areas is the metallophyte Biscutella laevigata L. The studies have shown the existence of significant morphological, anatomical and physiological differences between two groups of the B. laevigata populations occurring in Poland – the population of calamine waste heaps in Bolesław near Olkusz (Silesian Upland) and the population inhabiting the Tatra Mountains (Western Carpathians). The demonstrated differences are the adaptation (hereditary characteristics) of the plants to the unfavorable conditions of the calamine waste heap, i. a. high concentration of heavy metals in the soil. The research has also shown theexistence of significant differences between these two groups of populations – both at the genetic and morphological levels (a clonal form of vegetative propagation, removal of heavy metals by the oldest and drying leaves, a zinc tolerant species, trichomes accumulating metals, metal detoxification at the cellular level). The demonstrated differences between the zinc-lead (calamine) waste heap population and the Tatra Mountains population indicate the existence of the new subspecies of Biscutella laevigata subsp. woycickii on the heaps in Boleslaw, in Poland.


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