Microfiltration, Nano-filtration and Reverse Osmosis for the Removal of Toxins (LPS Endotoxins) from WastewaterGuizani Mokhtar1,2* and Funamizu Naoyuki1
- *Corresponding Author:
- Guizani Mokhtar
Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Japan
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: August 01, 2012; Accepted date: September 05, 2012; Published date: September 12, 2012
Citation: Mokhtar G, Naoyuki F (2012) Microfiltration, Nano-filtration and Reverse Osmosis for the Removal of Toxins (LPS Endotoxins) from Wastewater. J Memb Sci Technol 2:118. doi:10.4172/2155-9589.1000118
Copyright: © 2012 Mokhtar G, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin, a bacterial byproduct abundantly present in wastewater, is more and more representing a major concern in wastewater treatment sector for the potential health risk it represents. It is, therefore, more urgent than before to protect consumers from contaminating their fresh potable water reserves with LPS endotoxin through aquifer replenishment using reclaimed wastewater or by supplying reclaimed wastewater as potable water. Membrane treatment is an alternative to activated sludge process and is the most commonly used to treat wastewater. Moreover, nano-filtration and reverse osmosis are the most advanced technologies used to treat wastewater to a potable level. Removal efficiency of LPS endotoxin using Membrane bioreactors (MBRs) and Nanofiltration (NF) and Reverse Osmosis (RO) is subject of this paper. It revealed that these advanced technologies could remove a significant amount of endotoxin. However, levels of concentration in the product water are still much higher than the one found in tap water and it is not advisable to supply this water directly to consumers. Further investigations are required to determine the best management practices for a safe supply of potable water from reclaimed wastewater.