Micrometastatic Circulating Tumor cells; A Challenge for an Early Detection and Better Survival RatesYahya Tamimi1*, Ishita Gupta2, Mansour Al-Moundhri3 and Ikram Burney3
- *Corresponding Author:
- Yahya Tamimi
Department of Biochemistry
College of Medicine and Health Sciences
PO Box 35, PC 123 Al Khoud, Sultanate of Oman
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: June 02, 2015 Accepted date: June 29, 2015 Published date: July 02, 2015
Citation: Tamimi Y, Gupta I, Al-Moundhri M, Burney I (2015) Micrometastatic Circulating Tumor cells; A Challenge for an Early Detection and Better Survival Rates. J Carcinog Mutagen 6:229. doi: 10.4172/2157-2518.1000229
Copyright: © 2015 Tamimi Y, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Micrometastasis is a health burden affecting a large population worldwide, where early stage circulating tumor cells are clinically below the detection limit of the currently used techniques in diagnosis. These cells are considered one of the sources related to the disease spread, usually associated with poor prognosis and resistant to conventional therapies. With the recent advances in technology, various molecular and biological techniques including cytological examination, RT-PCR immunocytochemistry, immuno-magnetic separation and cell-enrichment techniques have emerged to improve the early detection of circulating tumor cells in different carcinomas. However, the sensitivity and specificity of these techniques along with their prognostic influence are still contested. This review aims to discuss the role of key player molecules including cell adhesion molecules, integrins and proteases in promoting micrometastasis and the current techniques used for an early detection of these malignant cells. Understanding mechanisms underlying this invasive process, will pave the way for designing new tools to unravel difficulties associated with early detection of CTCs and will improve therapies.