Mitochondrial DNA- a Tool for Phylogenetic and Biodiversity Search in Equines
Ashok Gupta*, Anuradha Bhardwaj, Supriya, Parvati Sharma, Yash Pal, Mamta and Sanjay Kumar
National Research Centre on Equines, Sirsa Road, Hisar (Haryana), India
- *Corresponding Author:
- Ashok Gupta
National Research Centre on
Equines, Hisar, Haryana, India
Received date: September 17, 2015 Accepted date: October 01, 2015 Published date: October 07, 2015
Citation: Gupta A, Bhardwaj A, Supriya, Sharma P, Pal Y, et al. (2015) Mitochondrial DNA- a Tool for Phylogenetic and Biodiversity Search in Equines. J Biodivers Endanger Species S1:006. doi:10.4172/2332-2543.S1-006
Copyright: © 2015 Gupta A, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
It is imperative to assess the maternal lineage in order to achieve a broad picture of evolution, phylogenetic and genetic biodiversity within and among different breeds of livestock. In recent past, there has been a considerable advancement in sequencing of complete mammalian mtDNA molecules and their analysis. Most of the studies have focused on the mitochondrial D-loop region, the most variable part of mtDNA due to increased substitution rate than in the rest of the mtDNA genome which serves as a better genetic marker to assess the diversity. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) possesses several favorable characteristics, including large quantity in the cell, small genome size, haploid, maternal inheritance with extremely low probability of paternal leakage, higher mutation rate than nuclear DNA, and amenable to change mainly through mutation rather than recombination. All these features make mtDNA a useful and one of the most frequently used markers in molecular systematic and has been widely employed to address questions of genetic diversity, population structure and population evolution of animals including equines. Many native breeds of horses as well as ponies were assessed for their genetic diversity and ancestry on the basis of studies on mitochondrial DNA to address the questions of evolution along with breed development and conservation.