alexa Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Mitophagy in Neurodegenerative Diseases | OMICS International | Abstract
ISSN: 2168-9296

Cell & Developmental Biology
Open Access

OMICS International organises 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events every year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific Societies and Publishes 700+ Open Access Journals which contains over 50000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members.

Open Access Journals gaining more Readers and Citations
700 Journals and 15,000,000 Readers Each Journal is getting 25,000+ Readers

This Readership is 10 times more when compared to other Subscription Journals (Source: Google Analytics)

Review Article

Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Mitophagy in Neurodegenerative Diseases

Kao LP1,2* and Wolvetang EJ2

1Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Arizona, 13400 East Shea Boulevard, Scottsdale, Arizona, USA

2Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia

*Corresponding Author:
Kao LP
Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic
Scottsdale, 13400 East Shea Boulevard
Scottsdale, Arizona, USA
Tel: +1-480- 386-3443
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: April 04, 2017; Accepted date: May 11, 2017; Published date: May 18, 2017

Citation: Kao LP, Wolvetang EJ (2017) Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Mitophagy in Neurodegenerative Diseases. Cell Dev Biol 6:184. doi:10.4172/2168-9296.1000184

Copyright: © 2017 Kao LP, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract

Mitochondria are critical in providing energy for neuronal development. They provide the majority of intracellular energy and perform important metabolic functions such as the Krebs cycle. Mitochondria contain their own mitochondrial DNA in a circular form, similar to bacterial genomes. Mitochondrial genomes encode several essential genes of the eukaryotic respiratory machinery, but most respiratory machinery components and factors controlling mitochondrial biogenesis are encoded in the nucleus. Mitochondria and the nucleus cooperate and communicate via retrograde signals, such as energy supply and redox signaling. This poorly understood communication is essential for balancing intracellular energy production and demand. Mitochondrial mutations could lead to dysfunctions in ATP production, calcium homeostasis, reactive oxygen species generation, and apoptotic signaling. Thus, mitochondrial dysfunction has been reported and discussed as part of neurodegenerative etiologies. There is no doubt that mitochondrial dysfunction, abnormal mitochondrial dynamics, and mitophagic degradation occur in neurodegenerative diseases. Mitochondrial turnover maintains cellular homeostasis by eliminating defective mitochondria through a specific form of autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved eukaryotic response to stress conditions by which lysosome contents are used to breakdown cytoplasmic proteins and organelles. Both number of ‘healthy’ and ‘mutated’ mitochondria could be increased or decreased by fusion and fission. Selective uptake of mitochondria by autophagosomes is called mitophagy. Mitophagic events are highly selective processes controlled by oxidative stress and are accompanied by loss of membrane potential and ensuing mitochondrial degradation. This review discusses the role of mitochondria in neurodegenerative diseases. This review also explores the connection between neurodegeneration and mitophagy, a highly selective autophagic process of oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial degradation. It will further discuss the role of fusion and fission processes in maintaining homeostasis.

Keywords

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2018-19
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri & Aquaculture Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

+1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Clinical Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Food & Nutrition Journals

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics & Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Materials Science Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Nursing & Health Care Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

Ann Jose

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

 
© 2008- 2018 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
Leave Your Message 24x7