Molecular Biomarkers in Multiple Sclerosis
|Brigitte Katrin Paap1,2*, Michael Hecker1, Dirk Koczan1 and Uwe Klaus Zettl2|
|1Institute of Immunology, University of Rostock, Schillingallee 68,18057 Rostock, Germany|
|2Clinic and Policlinic of Neurology, University of Rostock, Gehlsheimer Str. 20, 18147 Rostock, Germany|
|Corresponding Author :||Brigitte Katrin Paap
Institute of Immunology, University of Rostock
Schillingallee 68, 18057 Rostock, Germany
E-mail: [email protected]
|Received: December 01, 2012; Accepted: February 18, 2013; Published: February 25, 2013|
|Citation: Paap BK, Hecker M, Koczan D, Zettl UK (2013) Molecular Biomarkers in Multiple Sclerosis. J Clin Cell Immunol S10:009. doi:10.4172/2155-9899.S10-009|
|Copyright: © 2013 Paap BK, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.|
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Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic immune-modulated disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) affecting mainly young adults. Due to the complexity and heterogenic etiology of this disease diagnosis, treatment, and estimations concerning the future course of the disease for the individual patient are challenging. To encounter the variability in phenotype, disease progression and response to treatments, various new drugs are in development to complement existing treatment options. Since years intensive efforts are directed to identify biomarkers that are associated with various aspects of MS on different levels of the organizational hierarchy of the human body (e.g. DNA, RNA, proteins, cells).
We researched the last ten years of literature to identify those proposed candidates that had been repeatedly published as being associated with MS etiology, clinical manifestation, disease course, and treatment response. Here, we present a categorized overview over molecular biomarkers in MS.
However, despite of the large sum of studies and the long list of candidate markers, today only very few biomarkers are of clinical value. This is mostly due to lack of comparability and statistical power in most studies. However, there are recent advances in the field of applicable molecular biomarkers in MS: For example measurement of anti-AQP4 levels allows differentiation between neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and MS.