Mononucleated Cells to Regenerate Skeletal Muscle Syncytial TissuesGabriele Ceccarelli1, Flavio Ronzoni1, Mattia Quattrocelli1, Daniela Galli1, Laura Benedetti1, Gabriella De Angelis Cusella1 and Maurilio Sampaolesi1,2*
- *Corresponding Author:
- Maurilio Sampaolesi, PhD
Human Anatomy Institute
Dept of Public Health, Neuroscience
Experimental and Forensic Medicine
Universityof Pavia, Via Forlanini 8, 27100 Pavia, Italy
Fax: +39-0382-422117; USA
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: September 04, 2012; Accepted date: September 24, 2012; Published date: September 26, 2012
Citation: Ceccarelli G, Ronzoni F, Quattrocelli M, Galli D, Benedetti L, et al. (2012) Mononucleated Cells to Regenerate Skeletal Muscle Syncytial Tissues. J Stem Cell Res Ther S11:002. doi:10.4172/2157-7633.S11-002
Copyright: © 2012 Chakkalakal JV, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Skeletal muscle is one of the most plastic tissues of vertebrates since it may able upon exercises to double in size due to a physiological hypertrophy. Despite the fact that it is mainly a syncytial tissue, it contains a relevant number of mononucleated cells that can be involved in its homeostasis and repair. Although the mononuclear cell types with the highest myogenic potential are the satellite cells located underneath the basal lamina of muscle fibres, other interstitial cells have been shown to contribute to muscle regeneration. Adding complexity to this scenario is the fact that several authors revealed myogenic potential in pluripotent stem cells, which can be generated from patient somatic cells and eventually manipulated to correct the genetic defect. Notwithstanding the copiousness of myogenic cell types, their use in ex vivo cell therapies for muscular degenerative diseases is still questionable. However, new discovers on their biological properties have advanced our comprehension in handling myogenic stem cells significantly. In this review, we will focus on the myogenic potential of multi- and pluri-potent stem cells and their use in preclinical and clinical studies. New insights from direct reprogramming and epigenetic signalling to generate myogenic stem cells are also considered.