Monteleucast and Zileuton Retard the Progression of Atherosclerosis via Down Regulation of the Inflammatory and Oxidative Pathways
|Najah R Hadi1*, Bassim I Mohammad2, Ahmad Almudhafer1, Naser Yousif3, Ahmed M Sultan2|
|1Kufa College of Medicine, Iraq|
|2Al-Qadesiyah University, Iraq|
|3Colorado University, USA|
|Corresponding Author :||Najah R Hadi
Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Kufa College of Medicine, Kufa, po: 21, Iraq
E-mail: [email protected]
|Received May 07, 2013; Accepted May 24, 2013; Published May 26, 2013|
|Citation: Hadi NR, Mohammad BI, Almudhafer A, Yousif N, Sultan AM (2013) Monteleucast and Zileuton Retard the Progression of Atherosclerosis via Down Regulation of the Inflammatory and Oxidative Pathways. J Clin Exp Cardiolog 4:250. doi: 10.4172/2155-9880.1000250|
|Copyright: © 2013 Hadi NR, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.|
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Background: Atherosclerosis and its thrombotic complications are responsible for remarkably high numbers of deaths. Leukotrines are involved in different stages of atherosclerosis. Therefore this study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of montelukast and zileuton on the progression of atherosclerosis.
Materials and methods: Thirty-five male rabbits were used in this study. These animals randomized into 5 groups (7 rabbits each). Rabbits in first group were maintained on normal rabbit chow diet and used as normal diet control group (NC). While the rabbits in other four groups were fed on atherogenic diet (2% cholesterol) for 8 weeks. The second group, Atherogenic Control Group (AC) rabbits received atherogenic diet alone. Third group, Positive Control Group (PC) rabbits received atherogenic diet and ethanol as vehicle. Forth group, Montelukast Treated Group (MT) rabbits received montelukast 1.5 mg per kg daily and the fifth group, Zileuton Treated Group (ZT) rabbits received zileuton 150 mg per kg daily. At the end of 8th weeks animals were sacrificed, blood sample was collected to measure the following parameters: lipid profile, plasma GSH, MDA, and hsCRP. Immunohistochemical analysis (VCAM-1, MCP-1, TNF-α, and IL17) and histopathologic assessment of aortic atherosclerotic changes were also performed.
Results: Compared to NC, levels of lipid profile, atherogenic index, hsCRP, and MDA are increased while GSH were decreased in animals on atherogenic diet (p<0.001). There was statistically insignificant difference in the study parameters between positive control groups, when compared with those on atherogenic diet. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that expression of aortic VCAM-1, MCP-1, TNF-α and IL17 were significantly increased in AC group compared to NC group (p<0.001). Histopathologic finding showed that animals on atherogenic diet have significant atherosclerotic lesion compared to NC group. Compared to AC group both montelukast and zileuton do not have significant effect on lipid profile. Montelukast and zileuton cause statistically significant reduction in hsCRP and MDA, (p<0.001). Montelukast and zileuton treatment caused statistically significant, increase in plasma levels of GSH and reduced plasma MDA level (p<0.001). Both montelukast and zileuton treatment significantly reduced the expression of aortic VCAM-1, MCP-1, TNF-α and IL17 (p<0.001). Histopathologic examination of aortic arch showed that both montelukast and zileuton significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion (p<0.001).
Conclusion: Both montelukast and zileuton reduce lipid peroxidation, systemic inflammation and aortic expressions of inflammatory markers used in this study and reduced the progression of atherosclerosis.