alexa Motor Neurons Exhibit Sustained Loss of Atrophy Reversa
ISSN: 2329-6895

Journal of Neurological Disorders
Open Access

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Research Article

Motor Neurons Exhibit Sustained Loss of Atrophy Reversal in Immunodeficent Mice

Zhi Huang and John M Petitto*
Departments of Neuroscience and Psychiatry, McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
Corresponding Author : Dr. John Petitto
McKnight Brain Institute
UF, 100 South Newell Drive
Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
E-mail: [email protected]
Received February 27, 2013; Accepted May 20, 2013; Published May 22, 2013
Citation: Huang Z, Petitto JM (2013) Motor Neurons Exhibit Sustained Loss of Atrophy Reversal in Immunodeficent Mice. J Neurol Disord 1:117. doi: 10.4172/2329-6895.1000117
Copyright: © 2013 Huang Z, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Abstract

Our lab showed previously that whereas a substantial portion of chronically resected facial motor neurons reside in an atrophied state that can be reversed at 14 days following reinjury in wild-type (WT) mice, atrophy reversal was altered in immunodeficient mice. It was unclear, however, if the abnormal response at day 14 post-reinjury in immunodeficient mice might be due to differences in the kinetics of the reversal response or impaired regeneration. We sought to address this question, and test our working hypothesis that the normal regeneration of atrophied motor neurons is dependent on normal adaptive immunity, by comparing WT and immunodeficient recombination activating gene-2 knockout (RAG2- KO) mice that lack a mature T and B lymphocytes, at 3 and 28 days following reinjury. In WT mice, facial motor neurons that were resected for 10 weeks and subsequently reinjured for 3 days were able to regain fully an apparent 40% loss of countable neurons), and nearly 45% of that robust increase in neurons was sustained at 28 days post-reinjury in the WT mice. By contrast, at both 3 and 28 days post-reinjury RAG2-KO mice failed to show any increase in neuronal number. Size measurements showed that the surviving neurons of WT and RAG2-KO mice exhibited substantial motor neuron hypertrophy at 3 days post-reinjury, and similar levels of normal size motor neurons by 28 days post-reinjury. Among the WT mice, small numbers of T lymphocytes where found in the re-injured facial motor nucleus (FMN), and were significantly higher at 3 days, but not 28 days, in the reinjury compared to sham-reinjury groups. No differences were seen between the WT and RAG2-KO mice in overall microglial cell activity using CD11b expression following reinjury. These data suggest that many resected motor neurons did not survive the initial resection in RAG2-KO mice, whereas in WT mice they atrophied and could be restimulated by reinjury to regenerate their phenotype. Moreover, they indicate that normal T cell function, or some yet unknown function of the RAG2 gene in the brain, is essential for activating regeneration programs of atrophied motor neurons - programs with therapeutic potential for modifying neuroplasticity.

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