Multimedia vs. Analogue Text: Learning Outcome and the Importance of Short-Term Memory CapacityGlenn-Egil Torgersen1* and Herner Saeverot2
- *Corresponding Author:
- Glenn-Egil Torgersen
Division of Pedagogy and Methodology/Didactics
Norwegian Defence University College, Akershus fortress
Oslo mil/Akershus 0015 Oslo, Norway
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: June 24, 2016; Accepted Date: October 19, 2016; Published Date: October 26, 2016
Citation: Glenn-Egil Torgersen, Herner Saeverot (2016) Multimedia vs. Analogue Text: Learning Outcome and the Importance of Short-Term Memory Capacity. Arts Social Sci J 7: 224. doi:10.4172/2151-6200.1000224
Copyright: © 2016 Glenn-Egil Torgersen, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the importance of individual differences in short term memory capacity (STM) for learning from film (digitized video) and analogue text in a natural learning environment. The results are based on a survey of 396 students on Bachelor's level (military cadets, teachers college and psychology majors). A short-term memory test battery was developed to measure different types and capacities of several individuals simultaneously in a classroom environment Alpha. Respondents were divided into two groups, one receiving a film presentation and one reading an analogue text (the film narrative). The subject matter was the formation of the Norwegian nation in the tenth and eleventh century (history subject at high school/college level). A knowledge test measuring the total learning outcome as well as details and interconnection (understandings/ context) was developed. In total, the results showed that texts gave the best learning outcome. Both film and text had an increased learning outcome for details and understandings in correlation with increased STM capacity, with the largest increase from low to medium capacity. Progressive capacity (successive) matters more than multicapacity (processing a lot concurrently). Non-verbal intelligence (Raven/RAPM) has an underlying general importance, but less important than the total STM capacity. Different types of capacity are more important than others depending on the presentation form and learning content. Visual sensory memory capacity for learning details in text was one of the types most clearly associated with learning outcome. This was explained by code-switching (representation transformation) during processing of information.