alexa Neuroenhancement in Healthy Adults, Part I: Pharmaceutical Cognitive Enhancement: A Systematic Review
ISSN: 2155-9627

Journal of Clinical Research & Bioethics
Open Access

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Review Article

Neuroenhancement in Healthy Adults, Part I: Pharmaceutical Cognitive Enhancement: A Systematic Review

Fond G1,2*, Micoulaud-Franchi JA3, Macgregor A2, Richieri R3,4, Miot S5,6, Lopez R2, Abbar M7, Lancon C3 and Repantis D8

1Université Paris Est-Créteil, Psychiatry and Addiction Pole University Hospitals Henri Mondor, Inserm U955, Eq 15 Psychiatric Genetics, DHU Pe-psy, FondaMental Foundation, Scientific Cooperation Foundation Mental Health, National Network of Schizophrenia Expert Centers, F-94000, France

2Inserm 1061, University Psychiatry Service, University of Montpellier 1, CHU Montpellier F-34000, France

3POLE Academic Psychiatry, CHU Sainte-Marguerite, F-13274 Marseille, Cedex 09, France

4 Public Health Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, EA 3279, F-13385 Marseille, Cedex 05, France

5Inserm U1061, Idiopathic Hypersomnia Narcolepsy National Reference Centre, Unit of sleep disorders, University of Montpellier 1, CHU Montpellier F-34000, Paris, France

6Inserm U952, CNRS UMR 7224, Pierre and Marie Curie University, F-75000, Paris, France

7CHU Carémeau, University of Nîmes, Nîmes, F-31000, France

8Department of Psychiatry, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Eschenallee 3, 14050 Berlin, Germany

*Corresponding Author:
Dr. Guillaume Fond
Pole de Psychiatrie, Hôpital A. Chenevier
40 rue de Mesly, Créteil F-94010, France
Tel: (33)178682372
Fax: (33)178682381
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: January 06, 2015; Accepted Date: February 23, 2015; Published Date: February 28, 2015

Citation: Fond G, Micoulaud-Franchi JA, Macgregor A, Richieri R, Miot S, et al. (2015) Neuroenhancement in Healthy Adults, Part I: Pharmaceutical Cognitive Enhancement: A Systematic Review. J Clinic Res Bioeth 6:213. doi: 10.4172/2155-9627.1000213

Copyright: © 2015 Fond G, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract

The term neuroenhancement refers to improvement in the cognitive, emotional and motivational functions of healthy individuals through inter alia, the use of drugs. This popular topic attracts attention both from the general public and the scientific community. Our objective is to summarize in a synthetic review the data of randomized placebo-controlled trials that assessed cognitive effects of administration of neuroenhancers in non-sleep-deprived healthy adults compared to placebo. The major outcomes were attention, memory, learning, executive functions, and vigilance/wakefulness. Details on the pharmacological profile, effectiveness and safety for each drug are provided. We classify them according to their recognized major primary mode of action, namely catecholaminergics (methylphenidate, modafinil, amphetamines, tolcapone, pramipexole, guanfacine, antidepressants), cholinergics (nicotine, varenicline, acetylcholine esterase inhibitors, anticholinergics), glutamatergics (ampakines, memantine, Dcycloserine), histaminergics, and non-specified (caffeine, racetams/phosphodiesterase inhibitors and glucocorticoids).

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