Neuroenhancement in Healthy Adults, Part I: Pharmaceutical Cognitive Enhancement: A Systematic Review
1Université Paris Est-Créteil, Psychiatry and Addiction Pole University Hospitals Henri Mondor, Inserm U955, Eq 15 Psychiatric Genetics, DHU Pe-psy, FondaMental Foundation, Scientific Cooperation Foundation Mental Health, National Network of Schizophrenia Expert Centers, F-94000, France
- *Corresponding Author:
- Dr. Guillaume Fond
Pole de Psychiatrie, Hôpital A. Chenevier
40 rue de Mesly, Créteil F-94010, France
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: January 06, 2015; Accepted Date: February 23, 2015; Published Date: February 28, 2015
Citation: Fond G, Micoulaud-Franchi JA, Macgregor A, Richieri R, Miot S, et al. (2015) Neuroenhancement in Healthy Adults, Part I: Pharmaceutical Cognitive Enhancement: A Systematic Review. J Clinic Res Bioeth 6:213. doi: 10.4172/2155-9627.1000213
Copyright: © 2015 Fond G, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
The term neuroenhancement refers to improvement in the cognitive, emotional and motivational functions of healthy individuals through inter alia, the use of drugs. This popular topic attracts attention both from the general public and the scientific community. Our objective is to summarize in a synthetic review the data of randomized placebo-controlled trials that assessed cognitive effects of administration of neuroenhancers in non-sleep-deprived healthy adults compared to placebo. The major outcomes were attention, memory, learning, executive functions, and vigilance/wakefulness. Details on the pharmacological profile, effectiveness and safety for each drug are provided. We classify them according to their recognized major primary mode of action, namely catecholaminergics (methylphenidate, modafinil, amphetamines, tolcapone, pramipexole, guanfacine, antidepressants), cholinergics (nicotine, varenicline, acetylcholine esterase inhibitors, anticholinergics), glutamatergics (ampakines, memantine, Dcycloserine), histaminergics, and non-specified (caffeine, racetams/phosphodiesterase inhibitors and glucocorticoids).