New Perspectives for the Nutritional Value of Vitamin K in Human Health
- *Corresponding Author:
- Simes DS
Centre of Marine Sciences (CCMAR), University of Algarve
Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro, Portugal
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: May 26, 2016; Accepted date: June 27, 2016; Published date: July 05, 2016
Citation: Viegas CSB, Simes DC (2016) New Perspectives for the Nutritional Value of Vitamin K in Human Health. J Nutr Disorders Ther 6:192. doi:10.4172/2161-0509.1000192
Copyright: © 2016 Viegas CSB et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Vitamin K is an essential micronutrient in the post-translational modification of specific glutamic acid residues (Glu) into γ-carboxyglutamic acid residues (Gla) in target proteins known as vitamin K-dependent proteins (VKDPs). In healthy conditions of sufficient vitamin K status, a vitamin K recycling system maintains sufficient vitamin K levels for proper γ-carboxylation of VKDPs, and vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) widely used as anticoagulants inhibit vitamin K recycling. Besides its well-known function in the maintenance of normal coagulation, vitamin K has been reported to have other diverse physiological functions with impact in human health. In extra-hepatic tissues vitamin K deficiency results in impairment of VKDPs γ-carboxylation with important implications in bone and cardiovascular health. Although most of vitamin K effects have been associated with regulation of mineralization in connective tissues through the action of matrix Gla protein (MGP) and osteocalcin (OC), the discovery of Gla-rich protein (GRP) open new perspectives on the potential therapeutic range of vitamin K.