NICKEL, CO, CR, and MN METALS UPTAKE BYWHEAT AND GRASS PLANTS FROM SERPENTINITIC SOILSOF PENJWIN, KURDISTAN REGION- IRAQ
|J. K. Kassim, M. I. Kareem and Z. K. Mohammed
Soil and water science Department, Faculity of Agriculter Science, Univerisity of Sulaimani, Kurdistan region âIraq
|Received: 21 December 2012 Accepted: 20 February 2013|
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Metal rich soils derived mainlyfrom ultramafic (i.e. serpentinitic soils) are wide spread over Penjwin (Mlakawa) area. Three serpentinitic (S1, S2, S3) with one non-serpentinitic soils (S4) were used and these soils contain high concentrations of heavy metals such as Ni, Cr, Co and Mn. Results showed that total metal concentration ranged between 192.0 -1714.8 mg kg-1, 289.0 -1264.2 mg kg-1, 128.8-177.6 mg kg-1 and 4125-4795 mg kg-1 respectively, while after harvesting plants (wheat and grass) in the biological pots (CRD) experiment. The concentration of the total and potentially available metals Ni, Cr, Co and Mn decreased in the grass and wheat soil pots. But The CaCl2- extractable and water –soluble metals increased in soils after harvesting the wheat and grass except for Co which decreased. In wheat and grass plants (wheat Triticum aestivum and canarygrass Phalaris canariensis ), the uptake of Ni and Cr metals for soil S1 were above the normal range and the values were 14.47 mg Ni pot -1and 6.6 mg Cr pot -1. The concentrations of both Ni and Cr metals were found to be at the toxic level. While Ni in other soil samples was observed within the normal range and tolerance limits, but Cr, in the other soil samples, was above the tolerance level and was slightly less than toxic level. Wheat could take up highest amounts of toxic metals when grown in serpentine soils. The study showed that none of plants (wheat and grass) were identified as hyperaccumulator.